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Describe one ethical issue related to access to services related to people who are aging in America. How might access to...

Question

Describe one ethical issue related to access to services related to people who are aging in America. How might access to...

Describe one ethical issue related to access to services related to people who are aging in America. How might access to long-term health or other services improve for the elderly in the future? PLEASE PROVIDE SOURCES textbook used- healthcare ethics: critical issues for the 21st century. chapter 5 ethics and aging in america

Answers

#. Some of the ethical issues related to access to services related to people who are aging in America :-

1. Autonomy

-personal freedom to direct ones own life as long as it does not infringe on the rights of others

-capable of rational thought and is able to recognize the need for problem solving

-able to search for alternatives and select a solution that allows for personal freedom

-loss of autonomy/independence is a very real fear for older adults

-if safety is threatened then the older person must be referred to appreciate community services

-decisional autonomy: refers to the ability and freedom to make decisions without external influence

-executional autonomy: ability to implement decisions

2. Competency

-refers to the ability to fulfill one's role and handle one's affair in a responsible manner

-all adults are assumed to be competent

-all adults who have not been declared incompetent by a judge have the legal right to make their own decisions about medical treatment and health

-when questions arise about the persons ability to make health care decisions a legally appointted surrogate decision maker is designated

-a petition can be filed to determine whether the person is competent

3. Guardianship

-assigned as either partial or full if the person is incompetent or incapable of making decisions on his or her own behalf

Partial: incompetent person continues to make limited decisions

Full: person loses all rights to make decisions

-guardianship typically remains in place until the patient dies

-can be avoided if the person makes his/her wishes known in an comprehensive and legally binding manner (i.e. appointment of a surrogate decision maker before questions about competency arise)

4. Decision making capacity

-requires ability to understand risks versus benefits and apply personal values

-ability to understand, make and be responsible for the consequences of health care decisions

-determined by HCP and relates to a single decision rather than a global determination of the ability of one to manage their own affairs

-likely to have treatment preferences strongly based on religious values

-decisions are strongly influenced by needs, values, cultural factors, habits and emotions

-people with dementia want to remain involved in decisions about their care for as long as possible

-nurses must identify and address factors that influence cognitive functioning

Person must be able to...

-understand & process info that is relevant to decisions about diagnosis, prognosis, & treatment options

-weight the relative risks/benefits and outcomes

-apply personal values to the situation

-arrive at a decision that is consistent over time

-communicate that decision to others

5. Executive Control Functions:

-cognitive skills involved in successfully planning and carrying out goal oriented behavior such as self-care taks

-impaired by conditions such as dementia, stroke, major depression, parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and any condition affecting frontal lobe functioning.

#. An integrated, client-oriented system of care composed of both services and integrating mechanisms that guides and tracks clients over time through a comprehensive array of health,mental health, and social services spanning all levels of intensity ofcare.

Continuum of care is

•Client-oriented

•Comprehensive

•Integrated

With the access to long term health or other services ,it improves the elderly health because of following ways :-

o Response to changing needs

o Uniquely American nature

o Dedication to caregivers

o Increased focus on customer service

o Development of innovative types of care

- Aging in place

- Multilevel facilities

- Adult day care


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