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4. What are the potential treatments for breast CA? 5. What are the screening recommendations for...

Question

4. What are the potential treatments for breast CA? 5. What are the screening recommendations for...

4. What are the potential treatments for breast CA? 5. What are the screening recommendations for breast CA? 6. What is the m
4. What are the potential treatments for breast CA? 5. What are the screening recommendations for breast CA? 6. What is the main cause of PID? 7. Describe the signs and symptoms of endometriosis and uterine fibroids?

Answers

4. Potential treatments for breast CA.

Surgery:

  • Lumpectomy: This is the removal of the tumor and a small, cancer-free margin of healthy tissue around the tumor. Most of the breast remains. For invasive cancer, radiation therapy to the remaining breast tissue is generally recommended after surgery.
  • Mastectomy: This is the surgical removal of the entire breast.
  • Sentinel node biopsy: Removing a limited number of lymph nodes
  • Axillary lymph node dissection: Removing several lymph nodes

Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy involves using high-energy X-rays or gamma rays that target a tumor or post-surgery tumor site. These radiations are very effective in killing cancer cells that may remain after surgery or recur where the tumor was removed.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the use of anti-cancer drugs to treat cancerous cells. Specific treatment for the breast cancer will be based on; overall health, medical history, age, type and stage of the cancer, tolerance for specific medications and procedures.

Hormone therapy: This is for estrogen receptor positive (ER positive) and progesterone receptor positive (PR positive) cancers. It incudes, aromatase inhibitors, medications that block hormones from attaching to cancer cells etc.

Gene Therapy: It is generally accepted that cancer arises because of an accumulation of multiple molecular genetic defects that culminate in a cellular phenotype characterized by unregulated growth.

5. Screening recommendations for breast CA:

  1. Breast exam: Examination of breasts and lymph nodes in armpit, feeling for any lumps or other abnormalities.
  2. Mammogram: Mammography is essentially an x-ray examination of the breast by using low-energy x-rays, the machine captures an image of the breast with any underlying abnormalities within.
  3. Breast ultrasound. Ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of structures deep within the body. Ultrasound may be used to determine whether a new breast lump is a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst.
  4. Biopsy of breast cells: Biopsy samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis where experts determine whether the cells are cancerous. A biopsy sample is also analyzed to determine the type of cells involved in the breast cancer, the grade of the cancer, and whether the cancer cells have any receptors that may influence the treatment options.
  5. Breast MRI: A breast MRI scan can show changes in the breast using magnetism and radio waves.

6. PID is a bacterial infection mainly due to gonorrhea or chlamydia infections. These bacteria are usually acquired during unprotected sex. Sometimes, bacteria can enter in reproductive tract. This can happen after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion.

7.

Signs and symptoms of endometriosis

  • Heavy or irregular menstruation (Dysmenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding)
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Pain with bowel movements or urination
  • Infertility
  • chronic pelvic pain, cramps fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating or nausea

Signs and symptoms of uterine fibroids

  • Heavy or irregular menstruation with blot clots (Dysmenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding)
  • Increased menstrual cramping
  • Prolonged menstruation
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Swelling or enlargement of the abdomen and constipation
  • Frequent urination and difficulty emptying the bladder


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