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Which has higher entropy, nitrogen in the atmosphere or nitrogen in solid ammonium nitrate?...

Question

Which has higher entropy, nitrogen in the atmosphere or nitrogen in solid ammonium nitrate?

Which has higher entropy, nitrogen in the atmosphere or nitrogen in solid ammonium nitrate?



Answers

Which of these compounds has the stronger nitrogen-nitrogen bond? The shorter nitrogen-nitrogen bond?

So this problem we are asked to find the mass percent of nitrogen in each of the fertilizers in this problem. Okay. And then we're also asked which fertilizer has the highest nitrogen content. So let's start with the first fertilizer, Which is this NH three. Now at age three to find the mass percent of nitrogen, we need to find the mass of nitrogen divided by the molar mass of the molecule. So the massive nation Is going to be 14.1 And then divided by the total mass of this molecule is 14.1 for the nitrogen plus one point wine, the hydrogen. And there's three hydrogen. So times three. Okay, so this is for to find a mass percent. And if we plug this into a calculator course, okay, You'll find that this is zero 82 22 Or 82.22%. Okay. Um For our next compound it's CONH 22. This one's a little trickier. But we can still do it the mass percent of nitrogen this time there's actually two nitrogen. Okay. Because when the print because with the parentheses and the two outside the parentheses. So two nitrogen is total divided by the mass of the total molecules. So there's a carbon and oxygen And then there's two of this NH two here, Yeah, we can play this all into our calculator And we get a mass percent of 46.65%. Your compound is ammonium nitrate. All right again we have to nitrogen is here and we have for our total mass. There's two nitrogen, There's four hydrogen ins and there's three oxygen's And we just plug this into our calculator And we get 34.92%. And our final compound is ammonium sulfate, NH 42 s. 04. So the percentage in this case, there's two nitrogen two times 14.1. Okay. And then in the total compound there's two nitrogen and there's actually eight hydrogen because of the parentheses. Again, There is one sulfur Sulfur as a Mueller mass of 32.6 grams per mole. And there's four oxygen's We can plug this into our calculator And we get 21 .20 nutrition. Okay, So we've calculated the percent mass of nitrogen and all of these compounds and 82.2% is the highest. So the answer to the second question is nitrogen. And that's the problem.

Okay, so we have two different molecules. Dime a Thor, I mean, appeared in. And it's not the Craig structure. He thinks that nicotine please. And we want to circle which nitrogen atom is going to be more basic. So in the first case, we have both an s P three and an S p to hybridize nitrogen. Normally, you would always say that the S P three hybridized nitrogen is more basic. The reason for this is that the S P three orbital has further electron density, right has more p characteristics that loan Paris further when easier to take on a proton. So why is it that in the case of the map, we have the S p to hybridize nitrogen as being more basic? Also, because this specific S P three hybridized alone pair is really garbage in this specific circumstance, that's because it can resonate away. Safer loan pair can resonate away. It's not going. Tio have as easier time to pick up a proton because the electron density is spread out over a lot more. Adams. Furthermore, a resident structure of this molecule actually places the lone pair of this s p three hybridize nitrogen on Teo the original asked me to hybridize nice gin to give a formal negative charge on this nation Gin. So overall, this nitrogen is much more basic. If we look at our nicotine now we have an s P three hybridize nitrogen and an S p to hybridize nine children. And in this case, there's new trick because this US p three hybridize nitrogen cannot resonate away. Therefore, he s p three hybridized nitrogen is more basic in the case of nicotine.

So recalled that the Gibbs Free Energy, or rather the change in the Gibbs free Energy can be expressed as thes change. In Impl api minus the temperature chimes the change in entropy. So let's say we're working at some insanely high temperature. Let's say that we're working at, Ah, I'm gonna flag in a number here. Let's say we're working at 1000 Kelvin, right? Eso a very large temperature, Uh, and I'll keep everything else the same. So the question is, which one of these at higher temperature is, has the bigger effect that the change in M flippy or the change in entropy? Which one of these will have a bigger effect on the Gibbs Free Energy? Well, let's try. If you do, let's say we increase the change in entropy by one, and you keep in mind that this is in probably going to be in. Let's let's call this killer jewels. So let's say we increase it by one killer Jewell, and we increase it and we increase the entropy by one killer. Jewell. Which one of these would have a bigger impact? Well, on the left here, it's just one kill Egil. It just changes by one kill Egil. But once you factor into the right over here, this really changed. Let me make that a little bit nicer. There we go. This actually changes by 1000 killer jewels, right? Because the one kill a jewel of the entropy changes being multiplied by that gigantic change in temperature. And so the one that is really important in all this is actually the change of entropy at very high temp.

So the Journal So the general trend off increase in entropy can be depicted as solids have the least entropy, then followed by liquid On the highest will be off gashes Mulligan So containing towards the question auction a here whether they will be decrease or increase in entropy. Ben A solid melt. So you know so late. Get converts to liquid. So there will be an increase in auctioning auction Be. We have been gassed, liquefied. So we have change off gas to liquid. There will be a decrease in entropy. Well, lastly, Ocean sea when solid, sublime, so solid directly changes toe gaseous molecule There will be an increase in entropy.


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