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Describe the basic features of a galvanic cell. Why are the two components of the cell separated from each other?...

Question

Describe the basic features of a galvanic cell. Why are the two components of the cell separated from each other?

Describe the basic features of a galvanic cell. Why are the two components of the cell separated from each other?



Answers

Explain the difference between a voltaic (or galvanic) electro-chemical cell and an electrolytic one.

The difference between the Baltic organic electric chemical cell and an electrolytic one is that in a vault IQ cell or what we called as gold Van Exel or a battery? It is a chemical reaction. This is a chemical reaction, and it used to generate ah, voltage in an electrolytic cell. Okay, in an l A traumatic sell, it is an external voltage, and it used to forced it used to force a chemical reaction to occur in a particular direction. So that's the difference between ah, Baltic organic electrochemical cell and electrolytic one.

Okay, We're almost done with this chapter. This is Question 86. We have a graph that is plotting the massive metal deposited by electric waiting. Using a five amp current on that is on page 637 of the textbook. Um, So question 86 is asking us to determine the rate of production in moles per hour for each metal. So I tried to reproduce the figure, um, on my tablet. Didn't do too good of a job, but, um, the way that I would look to do this is both metals. Both lines are are originating from the, uh, the origin of the plot. They both started zero. And they're straight lines, Unlike the way that I'd remind. So, um, the way that I did this was if the rate of production is just the slope of the line, right? So I look for wherever the line intersex a well defined Why value on the plot. So wherever it crosses pretty much a well defined exit a well defined why value. So for silver, there are a few places. So the plot might. My graft might not show this too well, but the plot on on page 637 shows that at about five hours silver has transferred 100 grams. So I'll do. I'll keep my colors. So for silver 100 grams, um, per five hours if you divide, that's equal to 20 grams per hour. So they wanted in molds, right? So we're just gonna divide 20 grams by the molecular weight of silver, which is from the periodic table of the textbook is 107.8682 So when we do that, um, you should get you You should get an answer of ah, around 23 digits after the decimal place, Um, you should get zero points. 185 moles per hour for silver and then for gold. Um A you, um it looks like at about 12 minutes, I'll say it intersects at 150. So 100 and 50 grams of golds in 12 hours. That's equal to if you do the fraction 12.5 grams per hour and then the mark. Your weight is 1 96 So when you convert that to moles, you should get 0.63 moles per hour

So this question is asking us to distinguish between galvanic and electrolytic cells. Um, and there really is a major difference that the one major difference is they both generate energy. How they use the energy is one distinguishing feature between misuse cells. But the main difference is that in a galvanic cell, your, um, you're an ode, and your cathode are Ah, they're they're they're both metals that are contributing to generating some kind of an electrical current. Right. So you have reduction of the an mode, which means I'm sorry. You have oxidation of the Ana. Excuse me. So you're electrons air leaving your an ode traveling to your cathode? Um, where reduction is happening. So oxidation happens at the an odd reduction happens at the cathode and that system. It's a spontaneous reaction that generates some kind of, um, e cell. Right. Um, that, you know, for spontaneous processes are some positive number. Let's say we're generating one volt in this case. Um, I'll make that more clear. One find, um, so this is taking chemical energy, and it's converting it to electrical energy, so batteries are classic. Um, I cannot spell electrical, Apparently. So batteries were classic examples of galvanic cells, and your textbook goes into detail about a few specific types of batteries, Um, that historically are important car batteries and stuff like that. Um, so the major difference is that alleged would excel. You don't have what we call a volt meter. You don't have some kind of device that tells you the amount of voltage being generated by your cell. In this case, all of your electrical energy is being is being generated by some kind of a battery here, some kind of power source, that is, um, powering some kind of a process that is not spontaneous, generally so electrolytic cells might have an odes that would not be an nodes in galvanic cells because the amount of energy required to make ah less reactive metal favor oxidation as opposed to reduction. It is a huge energy barrier that would prevent the overall reaction to be spontaneous, whereas in this case you provide an electrical charge or in a logical current that forces reactions to be spontaneous. Whether otherwise not so electrode excels. You're pumping in energy from a battery or a power source, um, to drive a non spontaneous process to be spontaneous. So what electrolytic cells do is they generate electrical energy and then, uh, use that electrical energy to do some kind of a chemical transformation. Um, so, um, that's not spontaneous at room temperature under standard conditions without any input of energy. Right, So you're generally taking, um So the process of electrolysis is the process by which you take some kind of a compounds and by in putting energy, um, you form the elements. Um, that makes up the abounds that that makes up the original compound. So, um, you're breaking bonds. Your, um you're putting an energy to do some kind of a process that takes a lot of energy to do. That's not spontaneous. Otherwise so the type of chemical transformations that have been electrolytic cells, or wildly different from the types of chemical transformations that happening up on itself.

So why is it when we add the two electrode reactions together, do we always arrive at the total redox reaction for an Audrey chemical cell on? The reason for that is, um, really the same reason why we call them half reactions in the first place. Um, so electrode reactions, um, are only half of what's happening overall because you have two electrodes, ends electrons. So the an ode half reaction will show electrons being, um, electrons leaving that system, they travel through a wire, and then those same electrons are being used in the reaction at the cathode. So you have a conservation of mass and you have a conservation of charge, um, in an electrochemical cell and always in the universe, right. So when you add together the 2/2 for actions orbit to the reactions that are happening at each electrode, you end up balancing all of the chemistry. It's happening in an electrochemical cell. So, um, I just put an example from the textbook. This is from page 6 19 in the fuel cell section. So, um, we're talking about the cathode where options being reduced, and at the an mode where hydrogen is being oxidized. Um, so if you if you add together these two electrode reactions, you'll notice that we already have electron strict geometry balance. So this for electrons being transferred in. Both reactions. And then I could start canceling out before hydroxide for the products in the cathode for the reactions of the an ode. And then there were two waters that will cancel out two of the waters in the products of the adult half For action, you'll notice that we get a balanced total Redox equation for the formation of water when you add together oxygen, gas and 100 gas on. And that's what happens will always happen as long as your as long as you have a watch on strike geometries, as long as you balance both the half reaction so that the same number of electrons being given up in the and 1/2 reaction are being accepted in the cath of reaction. When you add that you together, you always arrive at the total


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