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Part 2; Intermolecular Forces_vsCovalent Bonds Those attractions between water molecules we call Fig intermolecular forces (IMFs) _ Without them, molecular (coval...

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Part 2; Intermolecular Forces_vsCovalent Bonds Those attractions between water molecules we call Fig intermolecular forces (IMFs) _ Without them, molecular (covalent) substances could never form liquids or solids!Intermolecular ForceFigure 2 represents single IMF holding together two water molecules_ The covalent 0-H bond strength here is about 463 kJImol, and the IMF strength is about 44 kJlmol one of the strongest IMFs of any substance_ IMF strength is determined by molecular shape size , an

Part 2; Intermolecular Forces_vsCovalent Bonds Those attractions between water molecules we call Fig intermolecular forces (IMFs) _ Without them, molecular (covalent) substances could never form liquids or solids! Intermolecular Force Figure 2 represents single IMF holding together two water molecules_ The covalent 0-H bond strength here is about 463 kJImol, and the IMF strength is about 44 kJlmol one of the strongest IMFs of any substance_ IMF strength is determined by molecular shape size , and polarity_ 96 pm-| 300 pm In general, which are stronger: IMFs O covalent bonds? Which ae longer? Imagine you were to pull on the chain shown below. As yOu pull (add energy) , where would the chain break apart? Can you explain why? Now imagine that YOu are heating liquid water: As this heat energy is added, which forces are going to break apart first , the covalent bonds or IMFs? Explain why, using ideas from the chain example in the previous example _ In class and during this activity, YOU will notice that we only discuss IMFs between molecular covalent substances. Why do we not discuss IMFs in metallic or ionic compounds? What type of attractions exist in metals and ionic compounds? 3L4



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D. Covalent bonding leads to primary structure and intermolecular forces, both of which ultimately lead to secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Use representations [A] through [I] in Figure $\mathrm{P} 20.10$ to answer questions a-f. a. $[\mathrm{A}]$ depicts two strands of DNA in a double helix. Are the two strands held together by covalent bonds, intermolecular forces, or both? [B] depicts two alpha helices linked together. Are the two helices held together by covalent bonds, intermolecular forces, or both? b. $[\mathrm{C}]$ depicts a phospholipid bilayer. Is the bilayer held together by covalent bonds, intermolecular forces, or both? c. [D] depicts a disaccharide. Are the two sugars each held together by covalent bonds, intermolecular forces, or both? d. Which of the single molecules depicted are an important structural component of $[\mathrm{C}] ?$ e. Which of the single molecules depicted react to form [E]? f. What intermolecular forces are typically involved for the amino acid depicted in [F] when it is incorporated into a protein? (FIGURE CAN'T COPY)

When it is the number of moles. Part Dicterow Solution 1.3 AM Um, 1.3 year months off. Solution has 1.3 million molds off. See? A tour is wondered. Resolution at normal condition one mole of cast provide toe win. Finito. Win for little volume. So are volume off. See it for is 1.3 on absolution? Yes, 1.3 moles. I want letter. I went to 22.4 of one more in 24.4 AM for 1 23 individual minus three one. My one later which want a 0.116 liters. Yeah. Uh, all the given hydrocarbons have C c Andi C H bonds bigger, non polar. So they still are non polar. So the inter molecular interactions are dispersions force Italian is highly polarized herbal due to present off by electron. So it is highly soluble in polar servant Italian is our no color born So the trend is not because off hilarity as the molecules are non polar, non polar The inter Mullican interaction with our dispersion forced the inter molecular in the direction with our dispersion horses The liver start structure of molecules can be drawn out. Seeing which, uh, wages Meeting. Yeah. C c W vines from the once at Uh huh h h h This is it pain? Uh huh. Home 18. I see the bond to see Ohh sh ohh This is tithing. Italian has a double bond. So it has are Sigma Bond. Andi Ah, by bond Asshole! Ability of the Italian has a pi bon is more than there have only seen morons on day Five months are more polarized Herbal Oh, in animal a cule And that's the negativity off Mina molecules. Electro negativity off Susan is more than I present off season. It's more than my treason. So it is, uh it forms a die Paul it from them di pause and to an auto molecular known polar And don't end and photo molecule are non polar, non polar So they have dispersion force di portable introduction are strong than dispersion for so they are easily soluble in polar solvent off water. Oh, molecule h two as have similar structure as that off water molecule. What a molecule. A just wanders polar fuller. So it is a so it phones I doesn't want with water molecule. And so it is more soluble. Oh, on our the electro negativity difference between Californian oxygen is very high. Uh, so it gets for share negative charge. So it get her for sure Negative, Josh, because it has a very large difference. Similarly, water molecule have partial, positively charged hydrogen and partially negatively charged hydrogen hydrogen atom of water and offseason atom office auto molecule from hydrogen bond.

This problem. Asked whether inter molecular Covalin bonds or inter molecular hydrogen bonds are stronger, So intra versus inter molecular is an important distinction, which is why I have highlighted those pieces of the words so intra molecular means within a molecule so within a molecule, while in turn means between two molecules. So an intra molecular bond I'm use water as an example for bullet is an intra molecular bond. Covalin Bond is like these. That's what bonds the H and the O together. So it's what's keeping the molecule together. And inter molecular bond is between two different molecules. So if we use water again, you have to draw another molecule of water and show there's a hydrogen bond between and H and M O. And this would be an example of an inter molecular hydrogen bond. So if we're talking about which one is stronger, um, the intra molecular Kobelev bonds are gonna be stronger because there was actually holding the molecule together. It takes a lot more energy to take one of these off, like to break an H off of the water and make it hydroxide than it does to break a hydrogen bomb between two different water molecules because, ah, hydrogen bond isn't really ah bond. In the sense that we think of a Kobe Lamond, it's more of an attraction than a bond. So it's a lot easier to break this attraction right here between the two different malt water molecules than it is to break a bond with a name molecule.

We're gonna look at the difference between the strength and animal between inner with inter molecular forces versus bonds. So if you're looking at inter molecular forces, inter molecular forces of the forces between molecules, So the strongest one that you can have for inter molecular forces is a dye polls I pull, which is where you have positive end of one molecule attractive to the negative end of another. Even if it is the strongest inter molecular force, it is still not a strong is a bond because those positive and negative ends sometimes can schefty and the molecules have to be close together for those to actually interact. Covina Bonds, on the other hand, are intra molecular forces they are with in the molecule, so they're actually sharing a pair of electrons. It takes more energy to break a bond than it does to break an in a molecular force, so prevalent bond is stronger. It's an intra molecular force. They're actually sharing electrons and requires more energy to be broken than in a molecular forces

Bond that involves a die poll for the water molecule that has an O. H. Radical with a charge of minus 00.35 times electron unit, and hydrogen radical which is a positive end of the disciple um Which has a positive .35 e. f. charge. We're going to develop a model to determine the strength of the hydrogen bond, which is that red I'll make it red dash line Holding one Die poll to another within water. So this is an idea of what gives water its bonding strength. What we'll need is the electric potential energy for point charges. Um simple expression KQ big Q over our. So we're going to develop two expressions. Um and look at the interaction between the left water molecules with the right water molecule and we'll break it into two parts. There is the potential energy of the hydrogen. Okay, so we're thinking about the left molecule sitting in the potential of the right molecule and we're going to have to come up with two expressions. One for the bonding energy of the hydrogen on the left, to the molecule on the right and another one for the ohh part of the molecule um bonded to the auto molecule on the right. So if we we look at the picture, we have two charges, both the same amount Of .35 e. And we'll write down what he is and a little bit but it's the fundamental unit of charge. Um and then the hydrogen is interacting with the ohh, which is negative at a distance of what I've labelled as D. And it's interacting with the other hydrogen, which is a positive charge at a distance of D. Plus L. Again I have those distances labeled these, the length of the hydrogen bond and the L. Is the length of the bond uh within the disciple itself. Okay. And we'll have to do the same with the left end O. H. End of the day I poll. So again it's 0.35 E squared. And let's see that ohh is interacting with the other, ohh, so the charges have the same sign At a distance of one over d. plus L. And it's interacting with the opposite sign, which is a negative potential energy at a distance of D. Plus too well. And we're ready to evaluate that. I'll leave some intermediate steps but we have K. is nine times 10 to the right luytens times meter squared column squared. And he is the fundamental charge. Okay. And putting that all together. Um The total energy of the hydrogen bond is just the addition of those two. Um And so the molecule interacting with the other one. And yeah, we get a common factor out front and I'll put the nah note And no means 10 to the -9. I'll put the nano in the upper exponent. Get it out of the denominator. As you can see all those distances are in the denominator. So there's an intermediate step. Just to verify if you're stuck on a calculation and I won't put any more intermediate steps, but this is equal to -3.30 Times 10 to the -20 jewels. And that's per hydrogen bond. Um And this hydrogen bond has been attributed the strong bonding in liquid water which prevents it from being vaporized or boiled. Has been attributed to this hydrogen bond. So what we would like to do is think through how much energy you have to add To break one bond Is of course positive 3.3 Times 10 to the -20 jewels, the negative sign indicating that there is a bonding going on. Um But now we're going to try to compare this number to the latent heat of vaporization of water, which is so well known quantity. It's the amount of energy it takes at the phase change between water and water vapor. Uh and that's a very large number. 2.2, 6 Times 10 to the 6th, jules per kelvin. Sorry, jules per kilogram. Get my case mixed up. All right. So, um we know the energy it takes to break a bond. And now let's figure out the energy uh needed to break Bonds in one kg. Uh huh. And that should give us something comparable to the latent heat of vaporization. So, let's figure out how many bonds there are in one kg. So, we're going to have to take the molecular weight of water, Which is approximately 16 plus two. two for the hydrogen. Um 16 for the oxygen is approximately 18 grams per no. Okay. And we can divide one kg by this to figure out how many moles we have. And then multiply by Allah God rose number, convert grams to kilograms. So we'll use avocados number to figure out how many molecules there are. End um one kg mhm. So this is molecules per per mole. We lost her molecules per mole. Okay. And we work that out and it is approximately three 0.34 Maybe that's more accurate than I need times 10 to the 25th molecules. And so the energy to break The bonds in one kg is the energy per bond times the number of bonds. And I'm just being careful to show all my um little conversions there and we wind up with about what is that? Um 1.10, Times 10 to the six jules per kilogram. Okay, we see that that is about the same order of magnitude as the latent heat of vaporization, which is not surprising so that those hydrogen bonds are the ones that you're breaking as your turn, turning water into water vapor or boiling it. Um And probably what is off a little bit why it doesn't give an exact calculation Is the idea that there is only one bond per um molecule. Um that could be more, there could be less. So our model maybe a little too simplified, but it does give the right order of magnitude.


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