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Comment on the statement that elements of the first transition series possess many properties different from those of heavier transition elements....

Question

Comment on the statement that elements of the first transition series possess many properties different from those of heavier transition elements.

Comment on the statement that elements of the first transition series possess many properties different from those of heavier transition elements.



Answers

Which of the transition elements in the first transition series have anomalous electron configurations?

In this problem, we need a tow. Explain why transition metal elements can have multiple oxidation state. Our is the main group elements can have on ly a single oxidation state. So from that definition off oxidation state, we know that the oxidation state is the number of charge on a single atom or I own So for example, if you write seal miners, that means that this growing this grown Adam has one negative charge on it. And if we like, write Magne Shin to class, that means this this magnificient my own has two positive charges on it. And this charges means that how how many electrons they have received or donated in there are from their outermost shell or valence shell. So in case of this magnification, it has donated two electrons to get this plus two oxidation state. And this chlorine has received one electron in its outermost shell toe become seal minus. So this main group elements, they have a very specific number off electrons in their outermost shell, which they can on DH. That and that's why I did actually can have only a single oxidation number like of this engine two plus, if you just want to make it mg three plus by removing one more electron from it's Elektronik Shell, it will take a very high amount of energy and that's way we can not ah make an MG three plus hours. Similarly, in case off chlorine, if you'd liketo give this chlorine one more electron and you would liketo make it seal to minors. This will take a huge amount of energy and and they're so it's not possible in general. But in case of the, um, Trudy, in case of the increase of the transition metal elements, they have unp eared electrons in there. D Orbital's origin said it degenerate Dior riddles. That means that they have unp eared electrons off similar energies which they can easily get rid off. Tohave multiple oxidation state we were considering Meghan is as a further example here, which has twenty five electrons and Mannion is ah have an electric configuration off beans. The same same rhetoric, confusion up are going, and then it has three d five and for us too, safety, write this letter in the box for, um, this is our forest too box. And in here is our, um three books, and we know that we have five degenerate d orbital's and for us that only one or we tell her. Tau Elektron Sline opposite Spin and and in the Our Dear Widows man manages five unfair election. So when when it is forming a compound, it can either get rid off thiss two for a selectron toe become even two plus on it can get you off any of this. Are all of this R B D electrons to become I am in three plus by just, you know, um, to forests and one thirty or can become em in four plus by getting rid of these two for us and two of the three. And although upto amen seven plus by getting rid ofthe are donating all these seven electrons. And that's why the transition metal elements can have multiple oxidation state because they have, um, degenerate Dior beetles are they have multiple one or more, um, on Perry electrons, which taken donate easily and can have a multiple oxidation state

So in this problem, we're asked toe explain why the Artemis created yourself. I wrote three transition metal elements are same as the road to elements. So, um, what is an atomic radius? We know that atomic radius is simply the distance off the nucleus of an atom from its from the boundary off in the outermost shell of electrons in an atom. So in this case, if this is the outer was boundary off the shelf electrons so that we create ius here is just the distance from the nucleus. Throw them the boundary of the outermost shell. Now, when we go down in a Zurich table, are we haven't increasing number off rose with were simply adding more shell off electrons surrounding the nucleus. And that means that, um, the outermost shell is going far away from the nucleus. And there's way the enemy radius is increasing with the increased number off a rose, sir. Again, if we have and other rule, we have another now shell of electrons and which is more far from the nucleus and their sway. It should have. I am larger value ofthe atomic radius. But in case of the transition metals, when you go from zero to two. Road three. We don't see very Paris. Much change in that meter radius are on the road. Tree transitioned matter Element's atomic radius is almost similar to the road, too elements and to make radius. So the reason is, let's look att These two elements here this is cadmium, which is from the road to I wrote William itself Tradition, medals And this is ah, half name for the root of the transition metal elements. So in case of cadmium, if you look at its outermost shell illiterate configuration, you can see that it has four detain and fibers to and no electron in the for F orbital and in case off half the, um just look at the change. So from here to here, we're adding thirty two more electrons, but all of them are actually going either in for if our fight be five d sectionals on ly two electrons, sir, adding in a new are shell off electrons. So the point here is that when we're going from, I wrote too transition metals to route three transition metals we air merely adding in the new Scheller were any only to your friends in the new shell. But most of the electrons are still going in a lower sub shell off electrons. They're soy, the control of the nucleus over him, I wrote three. Atom is almost same as the control of the nuclear's over a road to element. That's way in case of the transition. Metals from row to row three the atomic ready remains almost hunching.

Doing this podcast. We're just continuing to look at some periodic trends. And so we're looking at the first transition. Siri's Metals on DSO electrons added, uh, do do not go into the outermost principal energy level, but instead an inner energy level. So this does give the transition Siri's metals almost the same atomic radius. But the mass does increase. Hence the density increases from left to right across the first transition Siri's.

So here we have a screen shot of group of elements and their number of stable isotopes that have taken from the book. And what we want to know is why there's such a glaring difference between the number of stable ace of tubes between some of the atoms and this table and their counterparts, and what you should think about. Adding to this table is one more metric the number of protons, and we start to fill in this table and consider the number of protons these air in order in the transition bar 21 22 free before five. Finally, iron has 26 which, you'll notice, is all the elements that have an odd number of protons, only one stabilizer tube. Where has all the elements that have uneven number of protons of multiple stable institutes, some of them as many as five. So the trend here, and what this is reiterating is that face the tubes with an odd number of protons tend to have less stable oyster tubes. That's the primary reason behind why elements in the periodic table when we have one stable isotope versus there even numbered Proton counterparts


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