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Question 8Calculate the energy required (in kJ) to transform 18.02 g ice at 253K into steam at 393K.s(water) = 4.184 JIgks(ice) = 2.092 J/gKs(steam) = 2.00 JIgk...

Question

Question 8Calculate the energy required (in kJ) to transform 18.02 g ice at 253K into steam at 393K.s(water) = 4.184 JIgks(ice) = 2.092 J/gKs(steam) = 2.00 JIgk

Question 8 Calculate the energy required (in kJ) to transform 18.02 g ice at 253K into steam at 393K. s(water) = 4.184 JIgk s(ice) = 2.092 J/gK s(steam) = 2.00 JIgk



Answers

What quantity of energy does it take to convert 0.500 kg ice at $-20 .^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ to steam at $250 .^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ?$ Specific heat capacities: ice, $2.03 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{g} \cdot^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ;$ liquid, $4.2 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{g} \cdot^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ;$ steam, $2.0 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{g} \cdot^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ; \Delta H_{\mathrm{vap}}=$ $40.7 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol} ; \Delta H_{\mathrm{fus}}=6.02 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}.$

So this problem in this problem, we have 0.500 kilograms of ice or solid water and it's telling us we're heating this and it's a negative 20 degrees Celsius and it wants us to get that all the way to 250 degrees Celsius and how much energy is required and give us a bunch of numbers we can use, which will which will need coming up the main. The main equation we're going to use for most some of our calculations is Q equals M C, Delta T, and we're also going to need the moles of ice that we have so first weaken Dio. We have 500 point just sig figs, 500 grams of ice. I just a commitment from 0.5 grams kilograms and we can convert that into our malls. So one mole use Miller massive water which is 18.2 grand for mall, and we get the equal to 27.75 moles of H 20 So now on the first part. So first we have ice and we need to get that into water or liquid liquid. So we need to heat that up from ice to liquid to Sorry, actually, we need to get the ice from We need to get the ice to zero degrees Celsius first, so all the ice is zero degrees so we can use the emcee deputy. And so we have 500 grams, 500 grams times the specific heat off the ice, which is 2.3 which isn't given in the problem. Jewels per gram, degree Celsius times the Delta Delta T, which is the change in the temperature. And we're going from negative 20 degrees Celsius to zero. So that's just 20 degrees associates, 20 degrees Celsius. And then we can solve that. And that is 22,300 Jules. So you get 20,300 jewels or 20.3 killer jewels because we wanted final answer and killer jewels. So now we need to find out how much he is required, or energy is required to get all of the ice to change the phase two the ice into liquid. So here we have to use our moles. So we found above that we have 27.75 moles of the water and we can use our heat of our heat of fusion here, which is 6.0 to kill a Jules per one, mole and community the most canceling. We get killed, Jules, and we get 100 67.1 killer jewels. So now on to the next part, we need to get our water up to boiling point. So zero degrees to 100 degrees Celsius so you can use our que It was empty Delta t again. So 500 grams times 4.18 the specific heat of liquid water. Jewell grams degrees Celsius times ah, 100 res Because we're going from 0 to 100. And that's the change of that 100. And conveniently, we can see that all of the you should always check to make sure the units cancel because units will tell you in every problem in all of chemistry, If you go through the units, you'll get and you make sure they cancel out, you should get the right answer. And that equals 209,000 Jules or 209 killer jewels. Killer jewels. Okay, Now we need to get all of the liquid to go to steam. So here we use the heat of a pret the Delta H uh, vaporization. And so we saw We have to use the malls again. And then we just use the new number which it gives us, which is 40.7. Kill a Jules per one wall. And that gives us an answer off 1129 killer jewels. So you can see here this required the most energy of all of the steps. And then finally, we need Teoh. Since all of our water has converted into steam, we need to get 100 re Celsius to 250 degrees Celsius. So what we can dio is utilized that same equation again and use five milligrams times the civic heat of steam. Now, Jules per grams degrees associates times are new. Delta T, which is 150 cause to 50 miles 100 is 2 50 I mean to 50 miles, 100 is 1 50 and that gives us Q equals Q. And that gives us an answer of 151,500 jewels or more concise 151.5. Kill it Jules. Now, if we go through all of that and we add up if we add 20 point through 2020.3 killer jewels plus 170 167.1 Killer jewels 209 killer jewels. 1129 killer jewels plus 151 0.5 killer jewels that give us a final kill. Egil. Count of 1670 1676.9 killed, Jules. But if we account for six figs, we get when they have 36 fix in some of these answers. So we get 161,680 killed. Jules, for the final answer.

Question 81 is a multi step problem that requires you to understand the concept of the heating curve and how on a heating curve. If you start with ice, you can warm up the ice to its melting point at zero degrees Celsius, and you can calculate the amount of energy needed to warm it up using the heat equation, then on the heating curve. When you add more energy, temperature stays flat as you convert the ice into water. Then, on the heating curve, you can add more energy and heat up the water from zero degrees Celsius all the way to its boiling point at 100 degrees Celsius and then at a another amount of energy to convert the water. Liquid water to liquids, steam at 100 degrees Celsius and then warm up the steam from 100 degrees Celsius to in this problem 146 degrees Celsius. So each one of those steps requires its own energy calculation. Once you perform the energy calculation for each one of those steps, you then sum up the energy in order to get the total energy. So let's begin. We've got ice and we need to warm it from negative 15 degrees Celsius to zero degrees Celsius. To calculate the energy associated with warming, The ice will use the heat equation. Q. Is equal to S m delta t the S. The specific heat for ice is given to us at 2.3 jewels program degrees Celsius, the massive ices 8 66 g and the changing temperatures 15 degrees Celsius. So we get 26,370 jewels or 26.37 killer jewels. I'm going to convert everything to kill the jewels because when we get to the Delta H of fusion adult age of vaporization, those are in units of kill the jewels and will eventually sum everything up. Then to melt the ice will use the Delta H of fusion, which has units of killing joules per mole. So I need to convert my 866 g of water, two moles of water so I can use the Delta H A fusion of 6.1 kg per mole to get the killer jewels of energy that is required to melt 866 g of water or 866 g of ice. This ends up being 289 killer jewels. Then, after the ice melts and we have water, we're going to warm up the water from zero degrees Celsius to 100 degrees Celsius. We can calculate the energy associated with this using heat equation. Q, which is heat will be equal to the specific heat of liquid water. 4.184 jewels program degrees Celsius multiplied by its mass. 866 g multiplied by the change in temperature, 100 degrees Celsius and we get 362,000 jewels or 362 killer jewels. Now that the water has been warmed up to 100 degrees Celsius will convert the water into steam by using delta vaporization. Because Delta vaporization has units of killing joules per mole. As we did up here, we need to convert the grams into moles and then moles of water into kill the jewels of energy. And we get 1961 kill the jewels of energy required to convert 866 g of water at 100 degrees Celsius to steam at 100 degrees Celsius. Now the last thing that we need to do is warm up the steam from 100 degrees Celsius to 146 degrees Celsius. The energy associated with this can be calculated using the heat equation. Q is equal to S, which is the specific heat of steam that was given to us at 1.99 jewels program degrees Celsius multiplied by the mass. We still have 466 g of water. It's just now steam multiplied by the change in temperature 100 degrees Celsius. 246 degrees Celsius is a change of 46 degrees Celsius and we get 72,227 jewels or 72.27 Kill the jewels. Now what we have to do is sum up all of the energies that we calculated for all of the steps in order to get the total energy which in this case would be 2718 killer jewels

We want to convert steam toe ice. You can figure out the amount of energy and each step of the way. So our first step figure out how much energy it could is to convert steam toe ice. So we take the mouse of our steamy T 18 g. We've got one mole of ice, and so one mole of water is equal to 18 g. That's how I got that value. Heat capacity is 2.1 jewels per gram, degree Celsius and the temperature change. Our initial temperature was 145 in our final was 100. So that's that value. And I do this calculation. I get negative 1.6 to 8 pillage ALS Step two is where bombs are. Ah, being formed, turning our steam into eyes So one mold times are constant there of 40.7 moles. Her killer joules per mole gives me 40.7 killer jewels of energy. Our next step is converting our liquid to a gas. And so again, we'll use our mouths of 18 g. I'm sorry. Liquid to a solid 4.18 jewels for grams degrees. Celsius is the heat capacity for liquid water, and our initial temperature was 100 our final was zero. It'll give us our temperature change when I get negative. 7.5 to 4 killer jewels. When I do that calculation, the next up is where bonds are forming. Energy is going into making the bombs instead of change in the temperature. We're constant. This step 6.2 challenges per mole that gives us 6.0 to kill a jewels of energy. And last, we have turned from a liquid into a solid So 2.9 Jules, her grams, three Celsius. That's our heat capacity. Our temperature change was negative. 50 at our final temperature, our initial temperature of the step of zero degrees Celsius. When I calculate that out again negative 1.881 Kelly jewels. And to get our final answer, we simply add up all the end of a jewell energy values. When I when I add all of these numbers, I get 35 0.687 killed, jewels of energy

To approach this question. We're going. Consider each of the different cues that we're gonna have taking place as this transition occurs. So starting off we have solid water, which then we heat up from starting at negative 10 degrees Celsius, which is gonna dio all the way till we hit the transition point, which is solid water at zero degrees Celsius, which is then going to turn toe liquid water, which is also at zero degree Celsius. And then that is gonna heat all the way up until we have liquid water at 100 degrees Celsius, which is then going to turn into steam, or gaseous water, which is also at 100 degrees Celsius. And lastly, that is going to go two gaseous water. Sorry. This should be gaseous, not liquid, which is gonna be at 100 and 26 degrees Celsius. So we're going to denote this Q s for solid. This is gonna be Q f perfusion. This is gonna be cute. L for Liquid. This is gonna be Q v for vaporization. And lastly, we have qg for gaseous. And what we need to find is Q total, which is simply the son of all of these things. So let's go ahead and figure out what each of these are gonna be. Okay, starting with Q solid. We're gonna have, um, 866 grams times 2.3 Jules per gram. Degree Celsius times the temperature change, which we know for this is going to be zero minus 10 degrees Celsius. Yeah, and if we calculate that out, we're gonna find that that equals 17,579 0.8 jewels. Okay, Next up, Q f profusion were given a Moeller value. So we're gonna need to convert this 866 grams into moles. So we're going to multiply that by one mole, huh? 18.2 grams. You can get this for water just right off your periodic table, and then we're going to multiply this by 6000 and 10 jewels Terminal. This is also 6.1 kilo jewels per mole, as you will find in your data table. And that comes out to be 1,960,000. 274 274 jewels. And then you can move on now to the Q of our liquid. For this, we just have our 866 grams again. Multiply this by 4.19 Jules per gram. Degree Celsius times are temperature change, which is going to be 100 degrees Celsius minus zero to re Celsius. And this value here is going to equal 288,000. My apologies, not 288,000. This value is going to equal 362,000 854 jewels. Now we have our vaporization for vaporization Q. V. We have Q V equals that 866 grams times one more her 18.2 grams. Because again, this is a Moeller value that we're gonna be working with. And that is times 40 houses and 700 and 90 Jules Permal. The heat of vaporization of water is incredibly large. 40.79 kilo drills Permal, and if we calculate that out, we get a value off. 200 and 88,000 826.9. My apologies. It seems that I have these values flipped for Q fusion and Cube vaporization. So I'm gonna go ahead and swap these because I got the values in the wrong spot on my calculator. So that should be 1,960,000 274. Which does make sense given that we do expect this to be larger than Q F. And lastly, we have Q of our guests, which is 866 grams times our heat of our guests, which is 1.99 Jules per gram degree Celsius times are temperature change, which is 126 to 3 Celsius minus 100 degrees Celsius for our gas. And we go ahead and calculate that it and we will find that is, 44 1000 806 jewels. Okay, now, if we go ahead and some all these values up for Q total, we just simply are all these numbers up? We find that Q total is gonna equal 2674 0.3 Hyla jewels. We've gone ahead and done that conversion there because this value is gonna be so incredibly large that it's simply worth our time to convert it over tequila jewels and remembering We do need to round this off. Two significant figures were working with three significant figures, as that's what we're limited with with our 866 grams. So that's gonna equal to 0.67 times 10 to the three que jewels, which also equals 2.67 Mega Jules. Either one of these would be considered acceptable, and if you really want it would be 2.67 times 10 to the six jewels. So again, we've just gone ahead and systematically summed up each of these different Q values for those transitions that have taken place. And then we send them all together to find the total energy of this reaction.


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