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Determine whether each of the following molecules is polar or. nonpolar.a. $mathrm{SiCl}_{4}$b. $mathrm{CF}_{2} mathrm{Cl}_{2}$c. $mathrm{SeF}_{6}$d. $mathrm{IF}_{5...

Question

Determine whether each of the following molecules is polar or. nonpolar.a. $mathrm{SiCl}_{4}$b. $mathrm{CF}_{2} mathrm{Cl}_{2}$c. $mathrm{SeF}_{6}$d. $mathrm{IF}_{5}$

Determine whether each of the following molecules is polar or. nonpolar. a. $mathrm{SiCl}_{4}$ b. $mathrm{CF}_{2} mathrm{Cl}_{2}$ c. $mathrm{SeF}_{6}$ d. $mathrm{IF}_{5}$



Answers

Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.
a. SiCl4
b. CF2Cl2
c. SeF6
d. IF5

To determine whether or not a molecule is polar or non polar. You first need to draw the LeWIS structure and then from the LeWIS structure, determine whether or not it has polar bonds and whether or not those polar bonds cancel due to the geometry of the molecule. The first one is silicone tetrachloride. It has 32 valence electrons, giving the silicone and octet with the four bonds that it has to the four chlorine atoms. This is a tetra hydro structure because all of the bonds are exactly the same. They're all chlorine silicon bonds. Although each bond is polar, the molecule itself is non polar do to the symmetrical geometry of the tetra federal structure. The next one is CF two cl two. When drawing the LeWIS structure will see that it also is tetra federal, but the bonds are not the same. Two of them are CF and two of them are cl although the molecule looks planer suggesting maybe these two bond polarities would cancel and these two bond polarities would cancel. That is not the case because the tetra federal structure is not planer. So this would be a polar molecule. The previous one is non polar. The next one is selenium hexafluoride. There are 48 valence electrons, giving all florian's an octet and selenium and expanded octet. This is an octahedron structure and an octahedron structure, with all six bonds being the same is non polar, allowing for bond polarity cancellation, making the molecule non polar the last one is I F five. When we draw the lewis structure, there are 42 valence electrons. We'll use up 40 of them bonding the five floor Eanes to iodine and giving each iodine and octet. We have two additional valence electrons that serve as a lone pair on iodine. This is an Octa he'd roll electron group geometry, but because one of them is a lone pair, it ends up being a square parameter all structure which is polar due to the presence of the lone pair

To determine if a compound this polar or not, we need to start looking at defectors. So we're talking about potential Di Poole moments and essentially going back to Electra Negativity. So we know carbon hydrogen bomb is polarized where hydrogen has a delta. Plus, Carmen has a somewhat delta minus. But the difference between carbon and bro me is you in greater and pulling electron density in that direction. So the diepraam we're actually considering in this compound is going straight towards the bro. Mean, that's going back. So this is the diaper moment you'd wanna draw If you put into bro means now you have a di Poole that's going to be going towards this bro Ming going back into the board and one that's kind of coming out towards you. But those air going to kind of cancel out defector way You could do the math if you want, but the vector overall is going to be going in between the two bro means now if we get to the carbon tetra fluoride, we could imagine the same kind of di pole with flooring rather than bro me and so kind of coming in between the two florins. But the same dye pole is going in the exact opposite direction with the other two florins, and they both cancel out. So this compound is actually non polar. We move over to this one. Well, now we have a diaper moment headed towards this. Cory, a disciple headed towards this one, and thie overall vector is going to kind of put one straight up in between the tube. If we look att, the diaper moments in this compound. Well, we have a carbon Korean bonde headed in that direction. Also one headed in this direction. But if you drew the two, they would cancel each other out. And so this is also a non polar compound. Since there isn't irritation or on the double bond, this is assist that will bond. This one is Trans. The trans is non polar. The cyst is

The first molecule were given is a poly atomic ion. We'll have a chlorine bound to three oxygen with a negative charge. Overall, this is what our structure will look like. Our center Adam will be chlorine. It will be bound with one bond to an oxygen and then bound with two bonds to two oxygen atoms. And if you notice here, we have a DYP hold moment going toward our oxygen and this because oxygen is more electro negative than chlorine. So what that means is that each of bond from chlorine to oxygen is polar, and none of these dipole moments will cancel. So we'll have an overall polar molecule on to our next molecule. We have one soul for Adam bound to to chlorine. This is what our structure will look like. Our sulfur will have. Two lone pairs are chlorine, will both have three lone pairs, and chlorine is more electro negative than sulfur. So we will have a die polled moment going toward each chlorine from our soul for Adam. And what this means is that the sulfur chlorine bond is polar and because they're going both in the same direction are die. Poll moments will not cancel. So our molecule is polar and finally we have once over bound to four chlorine atoms. This is what our structure will look like. It's similar to the one before, but now we have two more chlorine. Again. We'll have lone pairs on every single Adam and we'll have a disciple moment going from sulphur to chlorine. So what this means is that our sulfur chlorine bonds are polar and again they won't cancel. We'll have an overall net dipole moment. So our molecule is again polar. I hope these problems help you understand how we can determine polarity, and I pull moments based on electro negativity.

For our first structure, we have one silicon bonded to four chlorine atoms. Now, if we book on the periodic table, we shouldn't know that chlorine is more electro negative in silicon. So what this means is we will have a DYP whole moment, which indicates polarity going toward our chlorine because it's more Electra negative. But for this structure we have a chlorine going in each direction. So that means that this structure is non polar because our chlorine dipole moments will cancel. You can think of it as we have the same diaper moment, so it has the same magnitude going in four different directions, so they will all cancel out. Now our second structure, we have one carbon atom bonded to to Chlor Ian's and two florins. Again, chlorine is more Electra negative than carbon. But flooring is much more Electra negative than carbon, and it's also more election electro negative than chlorine. So what this means is we have two different dicho moments going toward the chlorine and toward the flooring. Because we have different levels of electro negativity. This structure will be polar. Our next structure. We have a selenium bonded to six flooring, Adams again. We will have a diaper moment going toward each flooring because flooring is much more electro negative than our central Adam is. However, we have the exact same attitude of a dipole moment going toward each flooring in each different direction. So that means that this structure will be non polar because our dicho moments will cancel. Now our last structure, we have one iodine Adam bonded to five flooring Adams again, flooring is much more Electra negative and iodine. And so we will have a disciple moment going toward our florins. However, because we have five foreign Adams, we're left with one lone pair on our central I'd on Adam. So this means that this structure will be polar because we have a lone pair and because we have this strong dipole moment


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