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What is an intermediate within a reaction mechanism?...

Question

What is an intermediate within a reaction mechanism?

What is an intermediate within a reaction mechanism?



Answers

In a reaction mechanism, what is an elementary step? Write
down the three most common elementary steps and the corresponding
rate law for each one.

All right. Problem. 77. You have this, um, set of reactions right here and were asked to do three things. Okay, so I have another copy of that reaction right here, and we're going to use that later. But, you know, um, were asked to figure out a overall reaction. So when I used this reaction at the very top to do that. So basically, you want to see or you wanna look, afford things that are in both the reactor inside and the product side and, um, which everyone has both, um, needs to be cancelled. Right. So I look at I look at seal to here, and I see that there's no seal to on the product side, so she'll to could stay right. And then I see CEO, you know, there she il right here. And when I look at the product side, I see a two c l write their riches. I'm the same amount of the CEO Adams on the left side. So I'm gonna go ahead and cancel the all right and the next look, C h c l three and I don't see anything on the product side, so we'll leave it alone and then next we have, um c c 03 in a sea, that same thing, right? So that means that needs to be canceled as well. Um, at this point, I think have cancelled everything we have to. Right? So from everything loved would be part of our overall reaction. Okay, so we got t 02 plus c h feel three goes to become she'll uco for Okay, so that should be our final answer for Port A. And I believe all these are in Gashes State. I just, um, include that information in here, but that should be your answer. Port port. A so part is identifying intermediate, which is pretty easy for for us in this case, because the intermediates are basically the things that we crossed out to find the overall reaction. OK, so part b would be everything crossed out. Okay, So you got C l Yeah, man. He also got TCL three, right? I think those are the only things that we cancel. OOCL This is gas and away. You'll find out information once you look at the book. I didn't get to include it here. But, Tom, you got CEO and C c o three Think so? That should be your answer for parts. Okay, party? No. Which is pretty much e um, longest Part of this problem were asked to predict the rate law. So our rate determining step is the slow step, which is the second step right here. So first up is the right the right lobe based on that slow step, right. So we got rate R equals the rate constant K. And then we got the concentration of Korean and the concentration of see a you three. That would have been fine, except for the fact that we don't have a chlorine Adam on our overall reaction. So if you remember, um so riddle the rate of reaction depends on your concentration of reactant. Right? So we do have ch ILD three. So this one's fine, But what we have in our overall reaction is a c l two and not a CEO. So we need to express the l in terms of see all too right and really used this reaction for that For me. Use another open, um, caller would be good. And let's use green. So we'll use this first reaction to express CEO in terms of Shields. Who? That's because it has both of those, um, follicles got bounce. Okay, so you see that? Okay. One. The concentrations yield to is equals to that. He goes to Kate, too. Concentration C l squared. That's squared because of this. Um, number two right here. Good. So from this point on, it's going to just be all algebra work, trying to isolate cl on one side. Okay, So, um, for me, I see. Okay, So you want to isolate CEO and I would just isolated on the right side since I already wrote it on the right side. So I want to get rid of this scary too. So I'll move it to the other side, which makes this K one over gate two times. Concentration shield to what? CEO? Clear. But I should notice you don't want seal squared. We want seal only. Right. So we need to square both sides or take the square root of both sides. We got a one of Ricky, too. CEO, take the square root separately. So square with this, basically raising it to 1/2 right? No, I got t 02 and erasing that to 1/2 as well equals concentration shell. Okay, so what we want to do now, it's moved back to this rate low right here and replace that C l with this information. Okay, So you got raped. Well, okay. Times they want Ricky to wasted on 1/2. I'm CEO. We should the 1/2 no short sealed, too. Race to the 1/2 see age he il three. So, um, all these case right here all are all raised constants. Like all these, all these are rate constants. So we could set it up as just a arbitrary number. Um, OK, so that's just representing this whole value right here. And then we have she l two race to 1/2 the image. She l three. Okay, so that gives us our great law for this reaction. And this is Theo answer for part C.

So this question gives us the following two step mechanism. We have an O to gas plus C L to gas forms with K one form C L and O two gas plus CEO gas and that this is slow. The second step of the mechanism is an O two plus C l gas with K to form C L and O two gas and that this is a fast up and so question, eh just asks, Does this add up to the overall reaction? And so we have Ah, the overall reaction is to an O two plus C l too forms to see l and O two. And so if we look, we have one and oh, two and two n o to so that's good. We have our seal to hear. So reactant side is good. And now for our products, we have a c l N o to hear our second c l n o to here and then the only thing left are these to see l's. And since there's one in the products and won the reactant CE, those will be completely used up. And so we know that Ah, the mechanism does add up to the overall reaction? No. So let her be asks, which are the intermediates And as I just sound, the previous page R C L. Gas is our is an intermediate, and that's because it is not in the reactant or the products and see asks for the you rate. And the rate is based on the slow reaction, which is the first one. And so our rate is equal to K times concentration of n or two and concentration of C L, too. So that is our rate.

This is the answer to Chapter 30. Problem number 14 from the Smith Organic Chemistry textbook. Ah, and this problem is asking us to draw a stepwise mechanism for this reaction between foreigners steal, die phosphate and ice o pente neo die phosphate. Um, and it basically amounts to a, uh, a chain elongation or the addition of another, um, I supreme unit to this far in a steel for missile by phosphate. Um, and so the first thing that's gonna happen, we should remember from the textbook that die phosphate is a good leaving group. So the electrons from this carbon oxygen bond will revert to the oxygen of this die phosphate on Remembered. The dye phosphate group is abbreviated commonly as O p p. On. So that's the O. P. P. Group there. So we'll just draw this whole molecule out double owned double bond. I don't mind, um, and so we now have a carbo cat eye on on this carbon that formerly had a Dopp group on it. And so now we have a car broke. And so the soap ensign, you'll die. Phosphate is going to come in. Um, let me draw that. So there's the also pension. You'll die fast feet and the electrons off the double bond are going to attack our newly formed carbo cat eye on. Um And so the product of that will be the addition of this new, um, it won't be a new eye supreme group yet, so so here, the ice. Oh, Penton, you'll die. Phosphate has added to the pharmacy. Oh, di phosphate. Um, product. And we are going to have, uh, the carbo cat eye on located here. Now, on this carbon, um, fairly stable because it's tertiary. Uh, and so we will also have a hydrogen there. Um and so basically, what's going to happen is, um, some base that's floating around solution here. Uh, well, come and take this hydrogen. Oh, boy. There we go. He's, uh, sorry. I had a little bit of lag, so base will come and take this hydrogen. Um, and the electrons from this hydrogen from the carbon hydrogen bond, we'll revert two. Um, make a double bond here, and so we will end up with our final product. And in our final product, we basically, uh, just added an eye. Supreme Unit two are starting die phosphate And so this, uh, this is the final product. Who? It's not a good underlined. Sorry. Uh, student green. So this is our final product here. Um, so we had one. Well, we had one, two, three i supreme units to start on. Then here at the end, we have one, 23234 I supreme units on dhe. We have our dive Foss fied here, and we started with die Fast, fied. So functionally, we've just added one eye supreme unit to this chain. And that's the stepwise mechanism for this reaction. And that's the answer to Chapter 30 problems over 14.

So intermediate is basically just like what the answer says is an intermediate step between the reacting and the product. So let's say we have So for like, over reaction, we have to elementary steps. The 1st 1 is a plus. We plus ah arrow see up C plus D. And the second step is the plus e who f So he would be a intermediate reactant or product. Or we can just saying Jimmy substance because ultimately these two cancels out. So what appears in the overall reaction will be a was be was you, uh, people to see us have so inter mediators basically, how a reaction transitions from different elementary steps.


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