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The higher would [ have compounds folowing [ Iwo Whleh 'otito and (why? bonne [ 'polt &A has the higher boiling point because it Compound has = higher...

Question

The higher would [ have compounds folowing [ Iwo Whleh 'otito and (why? bonne [ 'polt &A has the higher boiling point because it Compound has = higher dipole moment Compound has the higher boiling point because it can more easily hydrogen bond with another molecule Compound B has the higher boiling point because it has higher dipole momentCompound B has the higher boiling more easily 'hydrogen bond with point because it can another molecule OTfey bolh have the same differ in t

the higher would [ have compounds folowing [ Iwo Whleh 'otito and (why? bonne [ 'polt & A has the higher boiling point because it Compound has = higher dipole moment Compound has the higher boiling point because it can more easily hydrogen bond with another molecule Compound B has the higher boiling point because it has higher dipole moment Compound B has the higher boiling more easily 'hydrogen bond with point because it can another molecule OTfey bolh have the same differ in the spatial boiling point because Iarrangement of the they fluorines only



Answers

Explain why a. $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ has a higher boiling point than $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}\left(65^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$ b. $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ has a higher boiling point than $\mathrm{NH}_{3}\left(-33^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$ c. $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ has a higher boiling point than $\mathrm{HF}\left(20^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$

Differences and inter molecular forces account for differences in boiling point. So the one with stronger intra molecular forces has a higher boiling point. So in this case, if we got the two structures, so ch four methane, you'll see that this is, um, a Tetra hydro geometry. And it is non polar as all the ch bonds. Well, they are. They do have some extremely weak, um, electron activity difference. It all cancels out due to the Tetra Hydra LL geometry. If we look at ammonia or an H three, you'll see that here you've got a loan here on your nitrogen, which makes us a tribunal plainer tribunal, pure middle geometry. So this loan pair up here, we'll have a negative charge on it and is able to interact making this a polar molecule, giving it a higher boiling point because as stronger inter molecular forces. So the structure is extraordinary

So before you on the white board I have drawn out in H three or ammonia and methane, which is also three h four. And so where in the differences between these two convey lately bonded compounds is their boiling point. An ammonia actually has a higher boiling point to be that to be exact over 130 degrees Celsius. And there are two main reasons for that. And so one of them is clarity, and the second is hydrogen bonding, and we can address each one separately. And so the first thing is polarity. So methane is actually a non poor compound, which I'm just going to write a in below it just to remind ourselves. And while ammonia is poorer about a piece, and polarity actually increases the boiling point because even though they're both conveniently bonded since ammonia is a polar compound, the electrons have more of attraction and so be harder to break those bonds. And so they need more energy or heat, too. Get it to its boiling point. The second reason is the hard region bonding, and so hydrogen bonding is a partial, intimate, likelier bonding interaction between a low pair on electron rich donor Adam, particularly in nitrogen, oxygen or flooring or other compounds like that. And, ah, heart surgeon. So a really electro negative Adam in a hydrogen, which we don't have that here in that thing, but we have it in ammonia. And so the's Hodgins right here are all having hot doing hydrogen bonding with the nitro drink and hydrogen bonding also increases the boiling point in compounds. And it's just because it kind of makes those molecules. I guess you could say Stick your and it makes them harder to separate. And so, just like how polarity increases, the electron attractions will be harder to break them apart. The hydrogen bonding kind does the same thing, and so that is why ammonia has a such higher boiling point. Been methane r ch. Four

Okay. This problem is having us compare different bullet points among these different compounds and describe why one is higher than the other. So first up, I have water that has the boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius and that methanol that has a boiling point of 65 degrees Celsius. So in the comparing these two, I have water and I have method Oh, each have my bent molecular geometries. Okay, So immediately, I see that I have to Hodgins immediately connected to this auction on my water. Whereas I only have the 100 immediately connected oxygen. Even though technically I have 400 genes on this methanol, I only have 100 of importance in this context because that hydrogen can participate in Ha jin barley. So if I were to draw out a solution of water so let's just keep it within this little circle. I'm going to have a water molecule here and then this thes two waters can 100 bond with each other because I can connect this 100 to die, auction the region bonding. And then I can also draw another water molecule like here. This can participate in Hyderabad as well with this one. And then last but not least, this auction can participate in 100 bonding with another water molecule as well. Okay, so as we can see, each water molecule can participate in hydrogen bonding so that every single water molecule can have a hydrogen bond with another water molecule so it can do so to a large extent. Right? Because, as you can see, this particular water molecule has 300 bones with three different water molecules. OK, but what about this one? This methanol. So that method, if our to draw this out with another, um um methanol. I can have a hydrogen bond between this auction and that water, and sorry that I did. And I can also have 100 bond between that hydrogen and this auction right here. But look, I can only have it to a lesser extent, because on this one, this methanol, I only have the ability to have to Hyderabad. Where is this one? This water molecule. I have 300 bones. Okay, so the fact that water can have a greater extent of 100 bonding leads to the assumption and to the, um, reasoning that we have a greater boiling point, then my methanol. Okay, okay. So I'm just cleaning this up there now and then I'll move onto the next one. Okay, so this is comparing water to NH three h 20 to manage three. So I have again water, which has a boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius. And then my NH three has a boiling point of negative 33 dear Celsius it. So why is this? So if our to draw out water and draws out my image three My any three has more 100 wins, right? So in the previous example, we compared water to methanol. We figured out that water had a higher boiling point because it had more Hodgins. But why not nitrogen? This one has more. Hodgins Why doesn't have a higher boiling point? And that's simply because oxygen is more electro negative, the nitrogen. So it would much rather have a hydrogen bond. Or it can have 100 bonds to a greater extent. Then nitrogen can simply because auction is more Electra negative. So it doesn't matter that nitrogen has more bonds to Hodgins. It's the fact that oxygen is more Electra negative, leading to have greater and stronger hydrogen bonds. Good. So what I'm gonna compare next is water boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius to my H f. Getting this has a boiling point of approximately 20 degrees Celsius. So if our to draw this out, I have water and I have my h f get so flooring we know to be a greater start to be more Electra negative than water started an auction. So why is it that flooring is more Electra negative but has a wester boiling point Dan water when auction is considered to be less election? A given for the answer to this is the same reasoning as the 1st 1 and that water I conform more hydrogen bonds than I can with my method. All because on this one I can only have a bond between a flooring and hydrogen like this, and then imagine in a foreign like this, right? So this one has 200 bonds. Where's the water can have 300 bucks or greater. So even though foreign is considered to be more electric negative than auction, the fact that water conform so many 100 bonds in comparison to other molecules leads us to believe that water has a greater boiling point. Okay, lets. But at least I'm comparing HF, which has a boiling point of 20 degrees Celsius to my Anish three, which has a boiling point of negative 33. Okay, so let's compare these two. I'm gonna draw out HF. I'm gonna drop out my anedge three. Okay? So in the previous examples we've discussed, we've discussed election negativity, and we've also discussed, um, the fact that there are more Hadron Bonds in different molecules. So my HF only has the 100 bond, right? It conformed to 100 bonds, but, um, foreign is considered to be more Electra negative and then nitrogen. This this compound this conform many Hydra bonds because it has the ability to because it has the hydrogen is hydrogen in this 100. And that message in that can all participate in Hyderabad ing. But my nitrogen is considered to be less electric, bigger than my for him, And electro negativity in these examples is considered to be a greater influence on hajj in body. So the fact that my flooring is more election negative than my nitrogen leads us to believe that electro negativity is the greater influence on why substances that have more electro negativity and their atoms have a greater boiling point for higher boiling point, But

All right to this question were given compound A and Compound B and compound, be it. We're told that it has a lower melting point in the lower boiling point. And we're also told that one of these compounds is an Ionic bond, and we don't know which one off right out the bat, so we have to figure it out. Okay, so the first step of answering this question is to remember the characteristics of ionic compounds. So ionic compounds onek. I am a compounds are strongly bonded, and it's very it's very difficult to break apart those bonds now. Remember, when you're thinking states such as solid to liquid to guess you are breaking the in terms of inter molecular bonds so between the atoms. So that should already answer the question and that the compound with the higher melting point, higher melting points or higher boiling points we'll be ionic, which is compound A. Because Company B has the lower melting point. But another way to conceptually think about this. Um, think about what Ionic bonds you know, sodium chloride table salt. Have you ever seen sodium chloride evaporates or turn into a look at form? Probably not probably be far too hot for you to even get close to something like that. So think about Celts. How it doesn't evaporate, Um, and that could be used as an example for solving the cycle question. But just remember Ionic Bonds. They're very tightly bond. It's very difficult to break thm. Typically, you can break them by what kind of break them were. Separate them by dissolving them with water, but in terms of separating them with heat. Good luck. So panic bonds there. It's tightly bond to each other. They have high melting points and high boiling points. So if one of these compounds is known to be Ionic, we would expect the one with a higher melting point of higher the higher boiling point, and that's it.


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