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4. The following X-linked recessive traits are found in fruit flies: vermilion eyes are recessive to red eyes, miniature wings are recessive to long wings, and sabl...

Question

4. The following X-linked recessive traits are found in fruit flies: vermilion eyes are recessive to red eyes, miniature wings are recessive to long wings, and sable body is recessive to gray body. A cross was made between wild-type males with red eyes, long wings, and gray bodies to females with vermilion eyes, miniature wings, and sable bodies The heterozygous females from this cross, which had red eyes, long wings, and gray bodies, were then crossed to males with vermilion eyes, miniature win

4. The following X-linked recessive traits are found in fruit flies: vermilion eyes are recessive to red eyes, miniature wings are recessive to long wings, and sable body is recessive to gray body. A cross was made between wild-type males with red eyes, long wings, and gray bodies to females with vermilion eyes, miniature wings, and sable bodies The heterozygous females from this cross, which had red eyes, long wings, and gray bodies, were then crossed to males with vermilion eyes, miniature wings, and sable bodies. The following outcome was obtained: Males and Females: 1,320 vermilion eyes, miniature wings, sable body 1,346 red eyes, long wings, gray body 102 vermilion eyes, miniature wings, gray body 90 red eyes, long wings, sable body 42 vermilion eyes, long wings, gray body 48 red eyes, miniature wings, sable body 2 vermilion eyes, long wings, sable body 1 red eyes, miniature wings, gray body



Answers

Miniature wings in Drosophila result from an X-linked allele (X") that is recessive to the allele for long wings $\left(X^{+}\right) .$ Sepia eyes are produced by an autosomal allele ( $s$ ) that is recessive to an allele for red eyes $\left(s^{+}\right)$
a. A female fly that has miniature wings and sepia eyes is crossed with a male that has normal wings and is homozygous for red eyes. The $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ flies are intercrossed to produce the $\mathrm{F}_{2}$. Give the phenotypes, as well as their expected proportions, of the $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ and $\mathrm{F}_{2}$ flies. b. A female fly that is homozygous for normal wings and has sepia eyes is crossed with a male that has miniature wings and is homozygous for red eyes. The $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ flies are intercrossed to produce the $\mathrm{F}_{2}$. Give the phenotypes, as well as their expected proportions, of the $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ and $\mathrm{F}_{2}$ flies.

In this problem, we're told that we have a fruit fly that is hetero zaius, wild type or body color. The body color is represented by B because their body could be black if it is not wild type. But we do have wild type, and so that's represented by a plus sign. But they're hetero zegas, so they also have one recess of Leo. And they had their headers, I guess, wild type for eye color. So we're gonna represent that with a P and a plus sign. This plus sign of the wild type and the P stands for purple because the recessive trait is to have purple eyes but the wild type. This plus sign indicates that this is the wild type meals that's actually red eyes. This is a header, zygote, wild type or body color and eye color, and it's crossed with almost like it's recessive for body color, so that's black and for eye color. So it has purple eyes, and this is the parent generation, and we are told to look for recombination frequencies so both body color and eye color are found on the same chromosome, and we're told that offspring are there 721 offspring that are wild type for body color and for eye color. There are 751 offspring that are home aside. It's recess it for body color and eye color. So these air the parental types, right? These air parental FEMA types, we have, um, 49 offspring that are wild type for body color. But our homes, I guess recess it for eye color. We have 45 offspring that are, um, homes like it's recessive for body color, but wild type for eye color. So I've written out the, um, Gina types of each offspring here, um, each type of offspring. And by far we have parental FINA types that air coming up being hetero, I guess. Wild tight here. And homes, I guess, for excessive. That's very indicative of these being linked traits. So they are indeed linked. But we do have a few comments here, so these are the re comments. That means they don't have the parental FINA type. They have something different. And it's the recombination off the headers. Ego, parents, a wheels on that on their chromosomes. Okay, so that's the result. We were able to see in the recombinant the recommended offspring the result of recombination in the hetero psycho parents. Um, a chromosome. Alright. So to find recombination frequency, Jim, representing with our f, we take the number every comment offspring divided by the total number of offspring. And so in this case, there are 94 re comments divided by 1566 total offspring. And that gives us a recombination frequency a 0.6 46%. So the recombination frequency between eye color and body color leal's is 6%. In a previous, um, question, we looked at recombination frequency, uh, of body color. So recombination frequency, a body color and wing shape, vestigial wings. And we found it to have a recombination frequency of 17%. And now we're asked if we wanted to find, um the If we wanted to find how far apart I color and we in shape were if we wanted to find the recombination frequency of these two things because we know a vestigial we must be on the same chromosome as I color, because this digital wing is on the same criminal's body color, and we just see, we just found the recombination frequencies. That and eso the body color and eye color must beyond this same Amazon too. So that means I color and wing shape must be on the same comes from So we wanted to find the recombination frequency between, um I color and vestigial wing. Then we would be able also to find the order of all three wheels. So the way that we would do this is we would set up a test cross with headers. I go. So, um ah, wild type, hetero zygote for I color and we shape We would cross it with the homeless I goat recessive for eye color and wing shape. And then these would give us our frequencies. Are recombination frequencies in the offspring. And then we would able to be able to use those to find the order of the wheels on the criminal

Okay. In order to solve this problem, I think it's much easier to break it down into the to individual traits right off the bat. I can see that a lot. A lot more of how spring have long wings and red eyes. We were told that those are the wild type traits, but I'm also going to assume that those were the dominant. So, for wings, I'm going to do a big L and a little well, because the long wings are probably dominant over the curved wings and then for the eyes, I will use a big R. And a little are to remind myself that the big are red eyes are probably dominant over the laws and Jai's Okay, So I'm just gonna break this down into the numbers of males and females I see with each of these traits. So for the long wings, 600 females have long wings and 200 have curved for males. If we add up, we actually see that the exact same numbers appear in the mail populations of 602 100. Since we see the same number in both males and females, that probably means that it is simply an autism will not secondly, not sex linked on. So I think that's probably going toe actually end up being just like a case of simple dominance and so we can prove that really quickly just using a simple pundit square, and it doesn't really matter who we say is male and female. But both parents probably need to be hetero zygotes. We're told that they're both wild type, the long eyes, and if we cross to hetero zygotes, we would get a 3 to 1 ratio where 75% of our offspring were long, I'd wild type, and only 25% of our offspring were the curved wing. And that is exactly what we see above with a 3 to 1 ratio. And so obviously we're talking about the curved wing here, and so that means that the curved wing needs to be at his own will. Recess ITV, a curved doing his autism will process it, and we'll talk about the Gino Times once we get done with the eyes. So I'm gonna do the same sort of thing with the eyes. Females have all red eyes, so 800 red eyed females zero loss and tried females. Obviously that's dominant, probably also tells me that it is sex linked, probably on the X chromosome as well. So let's just see what we get for males. Here we have a 50 50 split in males, with 400 having the Lawson ties and 400 humming the red eyes. So let's go down into opponent square for this, assuming that is X linked and the red eyes is dominant over the loss of colored eyes. And so the mother, we know that she has red eyes, but she's probably also a carrier for the trade. In order to give, you know, make 50% of the male offspring Lawson Jai's, which means that her Gino type has to be expect. Rx little. Our dad has to be ex big arcs. We know that he was wild type and in a why. So we go ahead and fill this out and you would see that in those offspring we would see 100% of the females would have red eyes, and only 50% of the males would have loss into colored eyes, which is exactly what we see. And so that means that This is the law. Zinj color eyes going to be sex linked on the X chromosome. And it is going to be recessive as well. Both these traits of recessive ones. Autism on one is excellent. And so the Gino types for parents. Um, if we combine these together, Mom would had to have been big a little. Oh, and then she would have to have been a carrier for the laws and color of her eyes. And then Dad, both those parents had to be at Arosa goats for the curved wing. And then Dad, we know that he was wild type for eye color, so he was expect are And why? So there you have your parents, Geno types.

Eyes of fruit flies, and it's discussing two different genes that affect the eye color of fruit flies. And there's es and ah little s a leos and little s, um Izz leads to scarlet eyes. And, of course, S is the normal dominant wild type FINA type. And then we also have little be Leal's, which lead to kind of a brown purple color. And let's talk a little bit about how to do this. So the question is basically asking us to do across between two double headers, I go So biggest the last big be little be crossed two biggest little ass Bigbie little bee. And you certainly could do a planets where, like this everything is. There's everything sort of works. As you typically expect. There's no sort of catches in this question, and so you could do upon its where. But you can also just recall that in opponents, where when you have two different genes that assort independently and they have two reels, um, one down at one defensive, then you're gonna get a 9 to 3 to 3 to 1 ratio, or, if you prefer a 9/16 to 3/16 23 16 2116 3 show and the 9/16. Of course, we're gonna be those Gina types that have big ass something in big be something. Um, and these will be the proof Lies with wild type WT eyes and wild type is a kind of dark red color. So dark red at the other end here, the 1 16 Those were gonna be the double homes I get So you're gonna have little s little s and little be little b And in replies, when you have a little less and less little be little be you end up with white I'd flies. And so in a ratio, um, of 9 to 3 to 3 to 1, the one is the again the double homes I go. So you get white eyes. Um, the 3/16 1 of these will have brownish purple eyes. And that's because that's because these are gonna be little B little bee. So in this case, we have ass capitalist something little be little B and then for the other three sixteens Ah, we will have a bright red eyes and here it will be little s little s and then a capital B something. All right, so we're gonna have a 9 to 3 to 3 to 1 ratio of wild type. Dark red eyes, brownish purple eyes, bright red eyes. And then the 1/16 is going to be white eyes.

In? Um, yeah, Drosophila. The four million I color off course do you do? Due to the mutation in and then good, which is recessive in nature. And, yeah, present on the chromosome on deck. Grandma's on extra. It a definite type off the Bonnie body e hawkers due to the mutation due to the mutation in mhm recessive l l race and on the AutoZone and they curvy links. Oh, good. Due to the mutation in mutation in the recessive and then see you. Yeah, right. Present on the out there. Art also. Mm. Then, uh, mhm. While I trade is represented as Helal. That's point and then plush. If the rose, I could say God is a represent greatest A little class and l l and mutants are represented as Yeah, thanks. They a man with male that for me, lian eyes and hmm, that is a big plus one y c u plus c u plus a plus. A plus is mated with a female with a female having curved ring and and Bonnie body that is three plus three plus. See you. See you, e um then all the projectionists off if one there, we're not typically typically wild type the genotype off. All this, he means, would be b plus white. See you plus see you A plus e. And they did not type. Uh, so this is a genotype off meat And did you know type of females would be leave plus the see you plus the u E plus? Yeah, that cross off the cross is defined us the crossing off the progeny off any generation with 10 one off its there is Therefore, when male have fun generation I crossed too. It only loved females. The expected general type off this for a genie's will be re plus B plus c u plus See you e plus e and B plus b plus. See you see you e and the first wife do you press See you a plus e end the bus white See you the e Therefore half the progeny. Well, the wild type that is one female and one that is one female and one made and out there half would have, um you didn't characteristics off all these meals on the meet, one made would be wild type and one would be mutant, hence half off the yes two offspring. What be while type makes


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