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You are collecting salamanders trom erm Forest Park; Queens and small FOn Central Park; Manhattan: You notice that all ofthe salamanders collected in Forest Park ha...

Question

You are collecting salamanders trom erm Forest Park; Queens and small FOn Central Park; Manhattan: You notice that all ofthe salamanders collected in Forest Park have yellow underbellies while all the salamanders collected Central Park have orange underbellies . Give one hypothesis (of an evolutionary principal) that may explain this pattem Can You tell if this is & trait that can result in evolution? If not, what additional information would You need?

You are collecting salamanders trom erm Forest Park; Queens and small FOn Central Park; Manhattan: You notice that all ofthe salamanders collected in Forest Park have yellow underbellies while all the salamanders collected Central Park have orange underbellies . Give one hypothesis (of an evolutionary principal) that may explain this pattem Can You tell if this is & trait that can result in evolution? If not, what additional information would You need?



Answers

Although most salamanders have four legs, a few species that live in shallow water lack hind limbs and have extremely tiny forelimbs (see photograph). Develop a hypothesis to explain how limbless salamanders came about according to Darwin's mechanism of evolution by natural selection. How could you test your hypothesis? The narrow-striped dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus striatus axanthus) is an aquatic salamander that resembles an eel. It is native to Florida.

All right so um this question is asking about Darwin's mechanism evolution through natural selection. And the example given is most salamanders have four legs. So I'm going to draw super good. Uh huh. No no super good salamander with four legs. There you go. We're gonna draw what's the other one? A last Hind limbs and have extremely tiny four lips. Okay. Very very tiny foreland. Okay. The question what is it asking us to do develop a hypothesis to explain how limbless salamanders team about according to Darwin's mechanism. How could you test your hypothesis? Okay so Darwin's mechanism of evolution by natural selection is essentially the idea that the fittest will survive those that are best adapted um to their environments will survive and those will survive to pass on their genes and eventually those that can no longer survive given their adaptations they will not pass on their genes and those adaptations will no longer exist and the population will shift to certain adaptations which allow for there survival. So hypothesis on using this idea is that the four legged salamanders um spend more time on the ground. They need their legs to move around on the ground um to run away from predators. Um to travel to just move around. They don't spend too much time in the water and that's why they have adapted the that certain type of someone is there. Uh huh. Than the two legged salamander. Um We can infer that since they live in shallow water um That they do not spend much time on the ground, they actually spend most of their time in the water. Um And oh because of this they spend most of the time in the water and those with legs um couldn't move around as well in the water and did not survive as well as those that had a mutation or adaptation um to not have a big front legs and to have zero uh hind legs. And it makes sense because they're in the water, they're going to be um swimming essentially and it's a lot harder to swim around when you four limbs and you try to walk, you swimming is much more efficient through the water. And so that is a hypothesis as to why we have different um types of salamanders in these different environments. Uh In a way we can test this hypothesis is um straight forward. This is very time consuming, but it would really be the most sure fire way, Sure fire way to test that. This is true. And what you do is you take one um species of salamander and then you divide them up and you put half of the species um in a controlled terrestrial environment on land. Um And then you put half of them in the shallow water environment and you just grow um And in controlled environments and you see how their bodies adapt to the different environments. And now what we should see the salamanders in the shallow water um start to lose their hind legs and their front legs shrink as generations go on. You should see the adaptation occurred and you should see the ones on land, not nothing changes to their legs. Um Do this test, and you can infer that our hypothesis, um according to Darwin's mechanism evolution by natural selection could be tripped.

Really interesting. Ah, study that found a population or a group of salamanders that are a sexual in their reproduction and that they've been a sexual in their reproduction for a very long time looks like fine 1,000,000 years, which is extraordinarily a long time, uh, to be a sexual. So five million years and we're really f do to think about two different factors here. Where would we expect to see, or what kind of environment would we expect to find the selling mentors in if they're going to be a sexual for five years and something about the population size? How big a population size do you think these guys have had over the years? So that the answer to the first question is that we generally would expect this situation of a sexual salamanders that have persisted for so long to be occurring in a stable environment, and they could be stable in a couple different ways. They can be stable in terms of things like climates or a biotic factors, um, so that there's not a lot of unpredictability, and it could be stable in terms of the interactions that the settlement er zehr having so um, for example, with parasites or predators or things like that. Um, so in both cases, we expect the environment to be stable because we remember that the disadvantage of being a sexual is that you have lower diversity, and it's harder. Ah, Teoh Ah, Coop. With changes, right, we tend to see sexual reproduction when there's a changing environment, and that's because the changing, because the reproduction produces offspring that are diverse and better able to handle the changing environment. We expect to see this in a stable environment. Um, the question of population size, at least certainly expected to be a large population. Um, remember that just due to chance, if you have a population that's five million years old, just to a chance, they're going to been some catastrophes over the years that could threaten to wipe out the population. And if it's a small population, they very likely would have been weight out. So, for its persist for five million years, it must be a very large population. It may be spread out across ah, fairly ride region as well, and so that makes it more resistant, um, to extinction, just because if you have a large number of individuals, a few of them are more likely to survive, uh, catastrophe. So in general, then we expect to see salamanders that have a sexual reproduction for a long period, time to be living in a stable environment and also to have a large population size.

Hello. Every students. So, in this question, you have tow thinking very clearly. And this is total yet experimental part. Suppose you go to the forest and you find salamander species. Okay, so in Salomon that there are generally two types off general types you hit, that is the black color and another risk trade collect. So you go to the forest and found that there are 30 females salamander who just lay their eggs in there. Location. Okay, so you just collect eating and bring into the plastic and get back to the lab. So you have the 30 female geno types on board. You have the general types off each generation. But one thing you remember that you do not have any information about the father off the Childrens. So? Well, the question is that how will you prove that red dominant read salary off. Salomon Air is dominant over black because you do not have any information about that, father. Okay, so what we have to do, you have to examine the colors and the fan. A topic ratio of the colors found in the OB spring off each element. So you have the offspring and you have the female. So you just examine the colors and the fan. A topic ratio. So what you have to do You have toe check the colors and them phenotype pick ratio. Yeah. Okay. So these two factors you have to check. Thank you. So if these two factor gives you a result off three h 21 that means the red color is three. And the black color is one. Yeah, if this observation you caught in your life experiment then on Lee, you can say that read will dominant over the plaque one. Otherwise, you're not because you do not have any father data and you have to perform the each final topic issue off all 30 females and their each 20 to 30 kegs. Okay, so this is a huge calculation on by using computer software. You If you get that this type of ratio for reddish to black, then you can only say that it is

All right. So this question is asking you to determine, how do we figure out which trait is dominant over a different trait? So in this case we're looking at salamanders, we will know the final types of the mothers and the final types of the offspring, but not the final types of dads. Now we're to determine is red or black. The dominant trait for these salamanders. So one thing we need to remember is when we're looking at the data, well, we won't actually be, but these scientists will be, they will know the prototype of the mom and they'll know the phenotype of the kids. So these are all the kids. Yeah, the bottom. So this is probably what some of the offspring would look like. And um you'll have combinations of both of the following types from both of the mothers and you'll have somewhere all their offspring are black or all their offspring are red and that will just depend on the identity of the family types of the mothers and the fathers. Whether either of these traits is the dominant or recessive. If you have Hamas ideas, individuals of the same peanut type, breathing together, they'll get that same being a type in their offspring. So what we're really looking for is it doesn't really matter what the father was because we can still figure it out without that. Just remember for the dominant traits. You can have either even just having one copy of the dominant trait will cause the offspring Cause 50% of the offspring. Two have that treat. And whereas if they are homos, I guess dominant for the dominant tree, then 100 of their offspring will have that trait. So we can expect 50 to 100 of the offspring from the the dominant tree too have that same peanut type. But what we're really looking for is when one of the mothers has offspring that are completely the opposite of her Fiona type. So that would be due to the father having contributed. So for whoever is the recessive. So let's see one of these traits is recessive in the mother's Hamas I guess recessive while she can only give her recessive genes. So she's with a father that also only gives recessive genes, she'll have all the same. However if she is with a she mates with the father that is the opposite. That has even one dominant trait of the other peanut type, then you will get 50 To 100% depending on if their fathers homo Ziegesar hetero zegas of the opposite right? So 50 to 100 opposite trait. So really we would be looking for something like this where you have a red mother and she has some red and black. She and then a different one has all red. And then that's what we see. And then if the black genotype was the recessive trait, you would see the same thing, you'd see red and black for some of them all black for some of them. And then you'd see just a group with um all of the opposite genotype because if the dad was homeless, I guess dominant, then you would see Um you could see 100% of that mothers offspring be the opposite genotype from hers. And that's how you would know that which trait is dominant or recessive. So the same thing, if we looked at the red mother and she just had a whole herd of little baby black salamanders, then we would know that red was the recessive trait, not black. So we don't know which of these it is we don't have the data, but this is what you would be looking for. So if you specifically want to see, um and in depth one, I did all the possible Fiona types for, for example, if fred was the dominant trait, you could easily cross out red, put black and you could see um what you could expect to see based on what the father was and what the mother was. So this is just a little breakdown. And if you wanted to look at um whether it was a sex linked gene or whether it was not as autism all, um you could look at the percentages of what you're looking for and that would tell you, but mainly we're just looking for. Um This one where there's the potential for 100 of the mother to have the opposite being a type offspring 100%. So that is what you'd be looking for and the same could be dust done and you could replace and do vice versa for all of these. So I hope that helped.


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