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If all the solute is dissolved in diagram $mathbf{1}$, how would heating or cooling the solution cause each of the following changes? $(12.5)$a. 2 to 3b. 2 to 1...

Question

If all the solute is dissolved in diagram $mathbf{1}$, how would heating or cooling the solution cause each of the following changes? $(12.5)$a. 2 to 3b. 2 to 1

If all the solute is dissolved in diagram $mathbf{1}$, how would heating or cooling the solution cause each of the following changes? $(12.5)$ a. 2 to 3 b. 2 to 1



Answers

When ammonium chloride $\left(\mathrm{NH}_{4} \mathrm{Cl}\right)$ is dissolved in water, the
solution becomes colder.
$$\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. Is the dissolution of ammonium chloride endothermic or }} \\ {\text { exothermic? }} \\ {\text { b. What can you conclude about the relative magnitudes }} \\ {\text { of the lattice energy of ammonium chloride and its heat of }} \\ {\text { hydration? }} \\ {\text { c. Sketch a qualitative energy diagram similar to Figure } 13.7 \text { for }} \\ {\text { d. Why does the solution form? What drives the process? }}\end{array}$$

He would have questioned 62. Describe how to prepare solutions from the dry, solid and the solvent. And in this case, solvent Is the water all right? Part A. We have 125 male leader of solution that contains their appointed one Moeller of the salute, which is sodium nitrate. All right, so first we have the question to cackle and polarity em equal to most of the salute and more divided by volume of the solution. Ringleader. Yeah. So now the molar ity of a solution is defined by thiss equation. And the problem is giving you that sodium natural solution. Is there a porn one? Mueller. So that means 0.1 most of solid is present, eh? One leader of solution. Or, you can say, 1000 mill leader of solution. Therefore, to calculate the most that's present, eh? 125 Male leader of solution. We'll just use the simple formula equal to 125 a new leader times 0.1 more divided by 1000 Mill leader. And that will give you the most of sodium nitrate equal to their point there. 1 to 5 more. So this is but most of an an adultery. All right, if we want to find the mass of a substance, will have the formula mass equal to most times more mass. And that is 0.125 mole times. The Moler mass off sodium nitrate is equal to 84.993 grandpa alone, and this will give you a number of one point of six. Graff. So the answer to part A is that we will need 1.6 gram off the solid sodium nitrate to make the solution 125 militar and contains a concentration of 0.1 more clarity. So that's the part, eh? Part B. Pardon me. We have 125 graham of zero point one Well, ality of an A and R three. So first we will write down the equation ofthe mull ality MM equal to the malls of the salute unit. ISS, more divided by the mess of the solvent and the mass of the solvent, has a unit of kilograms. So the Malala ity of sodium nitrate solution is a total mass of solution that is 125 grand So this means that 0.1 no of the solid sodium nitrate it's percent in one kilogram of solve it to the concentration tells you 0.1. Most of an end of three is presenting one kilogram off. Solve it. So let's assume the mass of the solid equal to X. So the mass of the solvent is equal to 125 minus X because 125 is a total math of the solve it of the solution and solution is equal to solid, plus solve it. So now substitute this two values into the question ofthe mill ality. We have mill ality of the solution is to 0.1 group more per kilogram is equal to the malls off the salud, and most of the solid is equal to the mass of the solid, too. By the by, the more mass of the salt that isthe 84.93 and this divided by the mass off the solvent that is 125 minus X. So is soft this equation and we will get the number X divided by 125 minus X equals 0.85 and we multiply this term to both side of the creation. We have x equal to 1.625 minus 0.85 x so we can solve the value of X. The X will be equal to visit one point 0 53 grand. So now the mass of the solid isthe 1.53 Graham. So the mass up the solvent This is the mass of the salute and now we need to find the mass off. The solvent will be equal to 125 minus one point 053 grams, and that is equal to 123 point none five grams. So therefore, to prepare the solution of for part B, we will need one point low fire three grams of the solid sodium nitrate as well. Ask 123.95 grams of the soul mint water. So by adding this to together, we'll make up the solution of sodium nitrate with one. Was there a point? Why mill ality? So that is the part B. We have the part. See, Part C tells us 125 grams of 1% and a n 03 solution by Mass. So the percent mass of a solution is mass up the solid and percentage is equal to mass of the salute, divided by mass of the solution times 100% so mass up. The solution in this case is equal to 125 grams, and the mass percentage is equal to 1%. So I assume the mass of solid and a three equal to X. We have the creation 1% equal to X, divided by 125 so we can solve for X. So acts will be equal to 125 grand's terms 1%. That is equal to one point 25 graphs. So the mass of the solution is 125 grand, and this 1.25 grams is the mass ofthe salute. So the mass of the solar wind water is equal to 125 minus 1.25 and this is equal to 123.75 grams. So the answer to part C is that in order to prepare a solution of 125 grand with one person, mass person of any and all three. We will need 1.25 grams of the solid sodium nitrate in 123.75 gram at the Solve it. So that is the answer to part, see?

Here we have problem. 88. This question. Ask us to calculate the freezing point and boiling point for the following three solutions and assuming that the complete association of the solid All right part A, we have the mass off the salute F E sale three equal to 10.5 grams. And if we look up the Moler mass of this molecule, it's equal to 162.204 grams Permal and we have the mass off the water equal to 1.5 times 10 to the second. Graham, to convert this graham into kilogram will have the massive water equal to zero point 15 kilograms. So for the first solution, Effie, sale three is the solid and water is the solvent. All right. So in order to calculate the change of phrasing and boiling point, we will need to tackle the mill ality and to find the morality of a solution, we need to know the most of the solid. So the number off most in the letter in for the solid f e c l three is equal to the mass of f e C l three, divided by the Moler Mass of Easy agree. This is equal to 10.5 grams, derided by 1 62.204 grams per mole, and this is equal to your point 065 more. So this is a number off moves up the solid. Now the mass off water is the massive solvent, and we'll have the moles off the solid. We can calculate the morality. Formal ality is equal to number off most of the solid in the unit off mole divided by the mass of the soul mint in the unit of Kilogram. And this is equal to 0.0 65 more divided by zero point 15 killing ground. So this will tell us the morality of the solution equal. Choose your point for 33 Moeller. So that is the first morality for the solution. Now we have the formula Delta t off equal to i times. Okay, uh, times And where Delta t f is the Depression in freezing point K f is the freezing point Depression constant and the small M is the mill ality of the solution. And here the eye is the vents ho over factor. There's whole factor, so we had to rewrite the solution. Don't a t f. It's also equal to keep your minus tee up the solution. So the solution f e c l three on ionization produces four Ryan's So the I for this equation is equal to four and we also know for water. The Kate off is equal to 1.86 Sosa's per Moeller. So now we substitute this values into the formula and we can calculate the freezing point. Us. Don't a t f equal to I was able to four k I a physical to 1.86. So since degree per Moeller times, the mill ality of the solution would get from here 0.433 and this is equal to three points 22 Celsius degree. So this is the Depression of freezing point. So for water, the freezing point is for water. The temperature of freezing point is equal to zero Celsius degree, so t solution will be a quitter. T pure minus. Don't a t of equal to zero sells his degree minus 3.22 Celsius degree, and this is equal to negative 3.22. So sis decree. So this is the freezing point of the solution. So this is a freezing point for solution A. And now we are looking for the boiling point of the solution. So for boiling point, we have the formula Delta T B. You called to I times could be times smarter for adult A TB represent the elevation in boiling point in eyes Vince Hall factor K B is the boiling point elevation constant and the small M is the morality of the solution. And we also have the equation. Don't a TB you going to tea of solution minus t have the pure solvent. So for water we have K B. The value of K B for water is equal to zero point 512 Sosa's her Moeller so substituting this values into the solution we have Delta t be equal to ay So we said I is equal to four because of e. C. L three. Upon ionization will generate four Ryan's so four times K be equal to 0.512 cells. This promoter time Cem mil ality. Because your 0.433 and we get Delta t be equal. Choose your 0.86 So since degree. So the boiling point of water, we know that it's equal to 100 Celsius degree, so t of the solution will be equal to Delta T B plus t pure water. So that is there a 0.886 plus 100 and give us 100 0.886 See, also secret. So that ends our part, eh? A boiling point. So the boiling point for for part eight is 100.886 and the freezing point is negative. Three points to two. All right now we moved to Part B party. We have 3.5% of K C L. That means 3.5 grams of K C. L is in a solution of 100 gram. So the mass of water is equal to three point 100 minus 3.5. This is going to 96.5 grams of water and we also know the Moler mask for Casey l is equal to 74.553 grounds promote. So first we want to find the number off most for the salute. Casey L This is equal to mass divided by Muller Mass. So 3.5 grams divided by 74.553 grams formal. And that will give us their points. You for seven moves of Casey l So now we find the mill ality of the solution. Number off. Most off solid case E l divided by the mass of solvent was just a water kyul Graham. So this is equal to 0.47 moles divided by 96.5 iss Graham, we needed times 10 to the minus seven tend to the minor three to get a telegram. So by doing this calculation, we get the morality of the solution equal to zero point for a seven Moeller s o or Casey elp on ionization. It will give us potassium and chloride so to Ryan's so that I, for this solution, is a quint. You too, and we have the chaos off water equal to 1.86 cells is degree promoter. Now we've substituted state A into the formula of freezing point. So don't a t f is equal to I can, uh, times in I, as equipped to K F is equal to 1.86 times. The morality is zero point for 87 and this will give us 1.812 cells. This decree and we know for water. The freezing point is zero degree. So T solution is equal to keep your minus delta T f. That is equal to zero minus 1.812 This is equal to negative 1.812 So So, Stickley. So this is the phrasing point for part B. Now, for water we have, we're going to calculate for the solution be We also need to catch coid the boiling point. So we have K b of water. You could choose your coin 512 sources Stickley promoter and the boiling point for water is equal to 100 cells in secret. So we have don't a TB Equant you I k b times m It wanted to time 0.512 Celsius degree per Moeller times their point 487 Moller. And this will give us the Delta T go to point for 99 So so t of the solution, it's equal to don't a t b plus t. I'm disillusioned off the pure water. So this is equal to zero point for 99 plus 100 that will give us 100.499 cell cystic. And this number is the boiling point for part B. Now we move to you part, See? So for part C, we have zero 0.15 zero Moeller off mg of to and on ionization. It will give us mg two plus and two fluoride I So I for dissolution even help Constant. Is it going to three? So now, since the question already gave us the morality, we don't need to calculate the number of most and the mass of the soldiers. So we just simply delta t of equal to i n times k f times in equal to I could to three times k f for water is 1.86. So 60 quid pro Moeller times The Malala t is there a 0.15 and we have Delta t have equal to 0.837 Celsius degree, so t solution is equal to keep your minus delta T f. This is equal to the freezing point off water. It's Cyril degree minus 0.837 Celsius degree. This will give us negative 0.837 cell system and this is thief freezing point for a solution seat. And now moving to the boiling point would have delta t be equal to ay kay bee puns M that's equal to three time zero point 512 So cystic re promoter times the moral ality 0.15 And this will give us numbers equal to zero point 23 Cell cystic quick now t of the boiling point is equal to delta T B plus t pure. So we know Don't the TB equity of your 0.23 and the boiling point for water iss 100 Celsius degree. So we get a number off 100 points 223 cells of stupid. So this is our boiling point for a solution seat. So the boiling point and freezing point for solution see, is here boiling point and freezing point for solution be. And here we have the boiling point for a solution A and the freezing point for solution A is right here. So that is our problem

If a solution becomes cold when the solvent mixes with the salyut, then heat is being absorbed from the surroundings, causing the solution to become cold. If heat is absorbed from the surroundings, this is an example of an endo thermic process. Energy is required for an end to thermic process. The energy comes as heat from the surroundings. So energy because this is an endo thermic process being required suggests that the ion ion interactions are stronger than the ion solvent interactions. The ion solvent interactions are what are created when the solution is formed and in order to get these weaker interactions to form than energy must be required. And for part C is the resulting solution an ideal solution? No, it is not. An ideal solution would be a solution created from a solvent and a salute where an appreciable amount of heat is not evolved or absorbed.

And silver, but a according to the state diagram as try ice warms, it goes from being a solid to a guess. It does not become a little bit and answer for Part B like verdict. Carbon dioxide Co two cannot exist below five. Standard atmospheric pressure 18.


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