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Which of the following ions would be expected to have the greater energy of hydration, $mathrm{F}^{-}$ or $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$ ?...

Question

Which of the following ions would be expected to have the greater energy of hydration, $mathrm{F}^{-}$ or $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$ ?

Which of the following ions would be expected to have the greater energy of hydration, $mathrm{F}^{-}$ or $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$ ?



Answers

a. Which of the following cations is least likely to form: $\mathrm{Sr}^{2+}, \mathrm{Al}^{3+}, \mathrm{K}^{2+} ?$
b. Which of the following anions is least likely to form: $\mathrm{I}^{-}, \mathrm{Cl}^{-}, \mathrm{O}^{2-?}$ ?

All right. So here we have a question about hydration energies and were given time. Two different sets of ions. We have sodium plus versus cesium plus and then potassium plus bus versus him. Very, um, two plus and say what we're looking for when we talk about hydration. Energy is we're wanting to figure out the relative strengths of attraction that each of the islands will have when they're dissolved in water molecules. And so the water molecule itself consists of hydrogen, um, and oxygen. And if you remember coming from studying about polarity, the oxygen will have a partial negative charge, and the hydrogen sze will have a partial positive charge. And so when an ion comes in and interacts, if it's a positive ion, it can interact with the negative side of the oxygen. If it's a negative ion, it can interact with the positive side the Hodgins. And so there are two things that kind of affect the strength of these interactions. The first thing is size, and typically the smaller the eye on, the better it can attract to the water molecule. The second is the charge, and typically the higher the charge, the greater the strength of attraction will be. And so first we're going to compare that first set of elements kind of on the periodic table we've got sodium and then CCM. These were both in the first group on the periodic table. As you go down a group on the periodic table, the Adams get bigger so CCM will be larger than sodium. Since sodium is smaller as an atom, it will have better attractions with water molecules, and it will have a greater hydration energy. So for port, a sodium plus one would have the greatest hydration energy. Then it gives us two other elements to compare. We have potassium, which is also in Group One. Then we have magnesium. Excuse me, barium Rather, which is in Group two armed. Now, even though barium is going to be larger than potassium, barium has a two plus charge, and that extra higher charge will increase its attractions. And so, for the sensitive islands barium two plus, while the highest hard

June from 54 Chapter 11. So they're gonna give us Ah, hares by ends, and they won't know which one's gonna be more strongly hydrated. So there are two rules for I don't know which ones are gonna be more strongly hydrated. So remember, Waller water and of itself is a polar molecule, so it's going to dissolve. So, uh, holder molecules and ionic compounds and the greater the charge on that compound big as the more it's gonna dissolve in water, water, water because us, because water is going to have a partial negative charge on the auction and partial positive, charge them Haijun because I auction is more Electra. Negative, then and hydrogen it as the electrons are being pulled away from Hodgins and causing a polar bond bond. It causes an asymmetrical jum tree which, in and of itself caused a polar box. So these as so these possibly charge oxygen. These these Hodgins, with a partial positive charges, will be tried to negatively charged ions and and I owns that have a positive charge, will be attracted to the auction's partial negative charge. Start the greater degraded, the charge of your eye on the more strongly. War's gonna bond to it. And it also is gonna depend on the charge density entity. So let's look at have positively charged ion versus a molecule that has just positive charges on one side. So if it is possibly charge on it Ion, you're going tohave charge. You're gonna have positive charges distributed throughout the Molly. Well, with this mullet is distributed throughout down. How were for this molecule? It's gonna be he concentrated on one side. So even though you're going to say as even though you have same charm as you know, you have the same charge, Uh, it's going art. It's going to be more dense over here. End of here. Well, here it's more spread out. So you have higher charged density identity. So think about this in terms of like the size of I. So So as we go down and towards the left hip Eric, Table Atomic Radius increases Brady's increases. So let's compare with GM and sodium over. Gonna have plus one charges. But lithium is going to be smaller because it's higher up on the pier. So So lithium is gonna have a higher charge density because you have this you have compared to a sodium because you have the same man charged, but in a much smaller area. Or rather, my smaller volume. Now we're going to compare. So they were going to start with and a plus an mg you plus, uh, if we go to our periodic table Able sodium has an atomic number of 11 Chinese medicine. Tomic number 12. So magnesium wolf is to the right of sodium potassium. Make it smaller also has a higher charge, so that's going to making more soluble in water. So magnesium is gonna be more strongly hydrated now for mg two plus just be two plus. So B e is higher on the purest table than M M G. They had same charge, but because B E's higher up, its smaller, so it's gonna have a higher charge density. So B E is gonna be more strongly hydrated. So next F E two plus US E three plus Effie three. Plus that's larger, as that has a larger charge in ft. Two plus, so that's gonna be more strongly hydrated. Next F minus on B R. Minus, So they have same charge, but Romain is lower unimpaired. Doublemint flooring. So we're going that hat, it's going to be larger. So it's going to have less charged anti relative to flooring. The flooring is gonna be more strongly hydrated. Uh, next chlorine versus chloride first quarry. But her chlorine, I should say so. They both have the same charge. But chlorine is smaller because for glory is a poly atomic eye on. So it's gonna hire charge empty. So this is gonna be more strongly hydrated and next see ah Oh, war minus and s 04 to minus. So the only thing that differ between them are is that is, is one element and also the charge. That's so Ah, it's for us. Chlorine is to the right of sulfur. So it's going to So it's going to deploring is gonna be a little smaller than suffer, but consequently us. Consequently a so fate as double the charge that the prick Laurie does so beach us so us. So even though you may have slightly more us even though ah prick, Laurie's gonna be smaller than so faith as the charges bread eater and sulfate. So that means that Sophie, it's gonna be more strongly hydrated

So let's have it be obvious that both calcium ion, calcium two plus and fluoride and I and are required in order to precipitate calcium fluoride. However, if you look at the case P expression Case, P is going to be equal to the calcium concentration multiplied by the fluoride concentration squared. So because the concentration of fluoride is squared, sometimes people would suggest that the fluoride concentration is going to be mawr effective at precipitating calcium fluoride. It's really just a matter of perspective.

Which of the following groups 17 elements would have the largest mon atomic irons. A mon atomic iron is an iron formed by the loss or gain of a single electron. So let's look at the mon atomic irons. Yeah, formed by the Group 17 elements and they would be f minus. Work our way down the list C l minus br minus and I minus. Okay. As we move from top to bottom down the group, the number of shells increases. And so the size of the atoms increase 34. The sizes of the Mon atomic ions in increasing order is Florence would be the smallest followed chlorine minus four by chloride, followed by bromide, followed by iodide. And so from this list, the largest group 17 Mon atomic iron is I minus or the iodide and Ryan


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