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Tautomers are changes in the order of genes exchanges DNA chromosomes. between nonhomologous chromosomes . different forms of an organic molecule, such as. point mu...

Question

Tautomers are changes in the order of genes exchanges DNA chromosomes. between nonhomologous chromosomes . different forms of an organic molecule, such as. point mutations. base In DNA Induced mutations,

Tautomers are changes in the order of genes exchanges DNA chromosomes. between nonhomologous chromosomes . different forms of an organic molecule, such as. point mutations. base In DNA Induced mutations,



Answers

Tautomers are molecules that differ in the position of a hydrogen atom. A tautomeric form of thymine has the structure

If we look at this Tanamor of thigh mean right, if this were present in a strand of DNA during replication rather than the stable form, Um, what we would see is that the hydrogen bonding could allow this Todd hammer toe actually bond with Guan E. So this could produce what we call a g t a guanine and time being base pair instead of an 80 bass player. Which is what would form if it was the stable form of that Todd. Um er

And this question. We're looking at this structure down here. That is a talk tumor of timing, which just means that it is a little bit different of a form of fine means. So this is a regular timing up here, and this is our tall tumor. Now, these air oriented a little bit differently. So I'm gonna move the orientation of the one of the book to match up with the one that I've drawn up above. So this is what they look like when they were into the same way. So this, um, Carbonell group has become an alcohol, and we've given the double bond to right here and now we have double bond on that and and no longer a hydrogen there. So we're asked if this structure this taught a mirror off structure were present in a strain of DNA during replication rather than the normal version of diamond, which is up here. What would be the result? So first I want to talk about the normal version of that. I mean, which is right here. I mean, base pairs with add a new which looks like this, um, and it does so through two hydrogen bonds. One hydrogen bond is between this hydrogen and this oxygen. So this hydrogen is what's being donated. And these lone pairs and this oxygen is accepting it. The second one is between this lone pair on nitrogen and this hydrogen on nitrogen. So this is the donated hydrogen, and this is the lone pair accepting it. So those two hydrogen bonds keep this 80 base pair together. Now, if we were to look at that in our talk tumor here, let me just copy this structure and put it down here. So now I, though, seem to double Bond are saying to hydrogen bomb positions. Write this one up here is still works. We have the hydrogen being donated, and we still have a lone pair of that oxygen to accept it. So this works. This is great. This one, however, is now between two lone pairs. There's no hydrogen here anymore to do the hydrogen bonding, So this one doesn't happen. You fix that. This one doesn't happen. There's no hydrogen brought there. So we go from two H bonds with the regular form of finding toe one h bond with this totem er, which means that the base pairing is weaker, so we have weaker base pairing between A and T when we have the Totten reform.

For this question, we are asked to provide a description of the different classes of DNA sequence variation existing in eukaryotes essentially Eukaryotic organisms differ substantially in the amount of DNA Purcell, which is termed as an organism. See value. Eukaryotic DNA sequences are shown to be quite complex compared to pancreatic DNA. As eukaryotic cells possessed more DNA and have a wide variation in C values. The sequence of eukaryotic DNA. DNA can be divided into at least three classes which includes unique sequence DNA, moderately repetitive DNA and highly repetitive DNA firstly for unique sequence DNA. These are sequences appearing once or a few times in the genome. This includes protein including sequences and numerous DNA with unknown functions jeans appearing as a single copy comprised Approximately 25 to sorry 50 percent of protein encoding genes and most multicellular eukaryotes. Other genes are found and similar but not identical copies. And these are called gene family. Majority of gene families are products of duplicating an existing gene and consists of several member jeans. But others example encode immunoglobulin proteins. Anniversary rates have more than hundreds of members. Another example of a gene family inclusive genes encoding better like blue Bins. In contrast, repetitive DNA exists in numerous copies. Um You carry it's have some carriers have many repetitive D. N. A. For example. Half of the human genome comprises repetitive D. N. A. Um The two classes of repetitive DNA are moderately repetitive D. N. A. And highly repetitive DNA. So here's a diagram sort of my map showing that uh classifications and the um explaining what repetitive DNA are. So firstly for repetitive DNA. Um The this is a major class that usually contains sequences of 150 to 300 base pairs in left that are repeated for thousands of times. Some of these sequences have important functions. For instance multiple copies of genes for R. N. S. Robert, Scoble RNA and transfer RNA. But the function of most molly repetitive DNA as unknown or may have no function. There are two types of volatile repetitive DNA. This includes tandem repeats and interspersed repeats. Tandem repeats are found one after another and are often cluster at certain regions of the chromosome. On the other hand in their first repeats are scattered across the genome. An example is the alu sequence Which is um approximately 300 base pairs in sequence and appears more than a million times a day Prizes 111% of human genome but has no clear function. This is a part of a short repeat like or which we which are called science because they're short interspersed elements. The other classification our lines which are long interspersed elements Which are several 1000 base pairs. One class of lines known as line one which constitutes Um about 70% of the human genome. Most interspersed repeats are most are from transportable elements. By contrast, highly repetitive DNA. Our short sequences that can be less more than That can be um less than 10 base pairs and appear in hundreds of thousands to 10 millions of copies sorry? Hundreds of thousands to millions of copies. They um repeated in tandem and group in specific locations of the chromosome, mostly in central mirrors and telomeres. They are known as satellite D. N. A. Since proportions of the four basis ranged from other D. N. A. And thus separates like a satellite fraction when centrifuge at great speeds and identity gradient seldom trans. They're seldom transcribed into RNA but still can contribute to central here and tell mayor function. However, majority of them have no known function. Examples of satellite DNA, including multiple copy genes which are an example of our our our RNA genes. Many satellites which are an example ISBN TRS and the last one is microsatellites. An example example of them are dying nucleotide. Yeah. Thank you.

In this question. We're talking about mutations, and what do I mean by mutations? Mutations are wrongful pairing of DNA nucleotides, the nuclear ties of DNA makeup. It's sequence, and it's what's red in order to be transcribed and translated into proteins, which make up the components of the human body. The right pairing is determined by DNA pairing rules. The specific pairing rules for D. N A. Means that the nuclear tied adenosine, or A is paired to the nucleotide timing or teeth. And then guanine is paired with cytosine G to see the colors here are just for the purposes of this diagram. The actual nucleotides are not necessarily different colors, but if we look at the sequence in the strand of DNA drawn on top, we can see that black pairs of blue and red pairs of green and every single nuclear type pair until we get to the sixth nucleotide pairing over here, where you can see black pairs with red. Now, Adam Ian is not supposed to pair with cytosine. Therefore, this represents mutation, a wrongful parent. This can arise from something like radiation hitting the DNA, which causes DNA damage and then a wrongful repair leads to mutation. But because biological machinery isn't perfect, in fact, the regular activities of DNA polymerase the enzyme that synthesizes new strand of DNA can also lead to just wrongful pairing. So mutation is not necessarily due to something like an external damaging agents such as radiation. And although mutation can cause the wrong or different sequence of DNA to lead to a different kind of synthesis of protein and folding of protein, Um, that's not always the case and the mutations itself, even though it will cause a change in the DNA sequence, Um, can probably also be silent, so it doesn't necessarily have to cause a change in the protein at all because of the way the immuno acid code works. So mutations will not necessarily lead to any changes at all. So it won't necessarily lead to evolution, Um, where animals developed different traits that make them or advantageous or less advantageous to survival. And it will not necessarily cause cancer because it will necessarily cause a change in the proteins themselves or cause disease at all. So the actual Onley correct answer to this question is D, or that mutations will most certainly caused a change Indiana sequence because, as you can see in the next generation of DNA molecules that a replica


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