5

NMR/Compound B33387.5 7.44 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 chemical shift (ppm)9.08.58.07.57.06.56.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 chemical shift (ppm)3.53.02.52.01.51.0...

Question

NMR/Compound B33387.5 7.44 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 chemical shift (ppm)9.08.58.07.57.06.56.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 chemical shift (ppm)3.53.02.52.01.51.0

NMR/Compound B 3338 7.5 7.44 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 chemical shift (ppm) 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 chemical shift (ppm) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0



Answers

The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, I ppm means 1 part of solute for every $10^{6}$ parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass:
$$ \mathrm{ppm}=\frac{\mu \mathrm{g} \text { solute }}{\mathrm{g} \text { solution }}=\frac{\mathrm{mg} \text { solute }}{\mathrm{kg} \text { solution }} $$
In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of $1.0 \mathrm{ppm}$ is equal to $1.0 \mu \mathrm{g}$ of solute per $1.0 \mathrm{mL},$ which equals
1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous solutions.
a. $5.0 \mathrm{ppb} \mathrm{Hg}$ in $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$
b. $1.0 \mathrm{ppb} \mathrm{CHCl}_{3}$ in $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$
c. $10.0 \mathrm{ppm}$ As in $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$
d. $0.10 \mathrm{ppm} \mathrm{DDT}\left(\mathrm{C}_{14} \mathrm{H}_{9} \mathrm{Cl}_{5}\right)$ in $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$

Here we are looking at the mill aridity, which indicates the number of moles of assaulted per liter of solution. And it's one of the most common units used to measure the concentration of a solution. So in this fast example we've got, the polarity Is equal to the mass divided by the atomic mass, multiplied by 1000, divided by the volume in Millilitres. So for example, in the fast one we have five times 10 to the -9. Fight fight 200.59 Multiplied by 1000, divided by one. We got 24.98 parts per billion. And then what we do is repeat this process for the remaining three examples, using the same equation that we have at the top to get the following values 8.37 ppm, Followed by 1 3 3.47 hot per million. And lastly not .2822 parts per million.

This question says that the units of parts per 1,000,000 parts per 1,000,000,000 were commonly used by environmental chemist in general parts per 1,000,000 mean one part of Salyut for 10 to the six parts of solution and then mathematically against us, these equations for how to calculate what they mean in terms of masses. And then it tells us that in the case of very dilute Equus Solutions, a concentration of one part per 1,000,000 is equal to one microgram of Salyut per one mil a leader which equals one gram of solution that is, this parts per 1,000,000,000 is defined in similar fashion and finally asks us the polarity just the following a quickest solutions. So I've written out how the math will work. But the most important thing is the set up. For example, the 1st 1 tells us we have five parts per 1,000,000,000 of mercury and from what it tells in the problem, all of these air in water water if you were to write this in grams when gram of water is equal to one mil, a liter of water, said the denominator for all of these calculations will be a mill, a liter of water. But what is changing is, of course, the amount of each of the solids. So it tells us this is parts per 1,000,000,000 one billion. If you were to divide five by a 1,000,000,000 that is five times 10 to the negative nine. So for every gram of water or milliliters of water, there are five times 10 to the negative ninth grams of mercury. That's what this means and then the math from their simple you multiply by 1000 to get leaders in the denominator, and then you divide by the molar Mass to cancel out grams, and you're left with holes for leader. If you use calculation, you would get answer of two point five times 10 to the negative eighth Mueller Mercury for the next one very similar set up. This is now one part per 1,000,000,000 so you divide one gram by a 1,000,000,000. That's one times 10 to the negative ninth grams of chloroform or C H. C. L. Three And again we're in one mil of water. Okay, convert to leaders and divide by the molar mass again. And we're left with moles per leader. Do this one. You get eight point for times 10 to the negative ninth Moeller I'm ch scale three and both of these were rounded to 26 significant figures because we were given the problem for this 3rd 1 We're still in parts per 1,000,000,000 so you're dividing 10 by a 1,000,000,000. So it's 10 times 10 to the negative nine grams of arsenic again still in one middle leader. We're converting that to leaders most point by 1000 and dividing by the molar mass. Get moles per leader. And if you do this math, you would get 1.3 three now three significant figures. That's what we're given. Times 10 to the negative forth Who are you in our stick? And finally 0.1 parts per 1,000,000 of DDT instead of dividing by a 1,000,000,000 we're dividing by a 1,000,000. So it's 0.1 times 10 to the negative six grams of D d t per mil of water. But the rest is the same convert to leaders divide by the molar Mass to be left with most for leader, and you would get you 0.8 to sniff figures because that's what you're given. Times 10 to the negatives. Seventh Moeller of D D T And one more time you're gonna, uh, rehearse with how you set this up because it's in water, we can write one gram is tau one mil a leader, and all you would do is you divide this number by whether or not it's parts per 1,000,000,000 or parts per 1,000,000 parts per 1,000,000,000. You're dividing by a 1,000,000,000. So it's 10 to the negative nine parts per 1,000,000 divided by millions of tons of negative six, and then you're just converting to get most for a leader to get the concentration.

In this problem, We're going to be looking at doing calculations regarding parts per 1,000,000 parts per 1,000,000,000 and we use parts per 1,000,000 in parts per 1,000,000,000 especially in environmental chemistry to express concentrations that are extremely low. So parts per 1,000,000 is just what it sounds like. It is one part of Salyut and used most cases. It's gonna be matching units. We're gonna make it grams per one million, which is one times 10 to the sixth parts solution. And a part per 1,000,000,000 is one part of Salyut per one times tend to the night parts solution That's one billion and these aren't great to work with. So we were given in the problem that one nanogram of Salyut Excuse me? One microgram microgram of Salyut per one gram of solution is equivalent to a part per 1,000,000. And since this is such a low concentration, one gram is equal to one mil leader. So a microgram of Salyut per milligram of solution is the, um what part per 1,000,000 is designed to be and let's switch colors here and go to later blue. One part per 1,000,000,000 would be a nanogram. I've Salyut per milligram mill leader of solution. So these air the to, um, factors that we're going to use to solve our four problems. Let's begin. Okay. Our first problem were given 5.0 parts per 1,000,000,000 of mercury in water and were asked to convert this to a polarity. Remember, parts per 1,000,000,000 is 5.0 nanograms of mercury per mill. Leader of solution. And we need to convert this to similarity, which is moles per leader. So we need to convert mill leaders to leader. Let's do that. First, there are 1000 milliliters in one leader, and then let's convert nanograms two grams. There's one times 10 to the ninth nanograms in one gram. And then let's use molar mass of mercury, which is 200 0.59 grams per mole. And we're done with this math. We will have 10.5 times 10 to the minus eighth Moeller, and that's the concentration of the mercury. That's our 1st 1 Our second problem is also in parts per 1,000,000,000 and were given one 0.0 parts per 1,000,000,000 of try chloral methane ch seal three also in water. So we're going to set up this problem the same way. So I'm going to just put these values in 1.0 nanograms of C H C l three per mil, leader of solution and 1000 mill leaders per leader. One gram for one billion nanograms. And then we're going to use the molar mass of C H C L three, which is 119 0.38 grams in a bowl door. Math and I need to sig figs on this one, and I will have eight 0.4 times 10 to the minus ninth Moller, dry coral, methane. Two problems left in both of our next problems are parts per 1,000,000. My screen went off. I hope I have this. So my next problem see is we have 10 parts per 1,000,000. I believe this was arsenic 10 parts per 1,000,000 arsenic and still converting this to mill arat E. So we're remember that parts per 1,000,000 is 10 micrograms per mil. Leader of solution. So what we're gonna do on this is still convert our mill leaders two leaders and we're going to instead of one times 10 to the ninth. We've got one time to the sixth one times 10 to the six micrograms in one gram and my Moeller mass for Merck for arsenic is 74.92 grams per mole. Do the math on this one and we get, um, 0.1 33 And I wasn't very careful here. I was given 10.0, so I have to report this 123 sig Figs. So let's go ahead and put this in scientific notation. It's 1.33 times 10 to the miners. Third polarity for IRS Nick and our last problem is 0.10 And I did say that right 0.10 parts per 1,000,000. I didn t and I just looked up DDT and I found out it's Moeller Mass was 3 54 0.49 grams per mole. Um, the chemical formula was given in the problem. So this is going to be set up just like the previous problem. 0.10 micrograms per mil Later, Our conversion factor for leaders and milliliters, our conversion factor for grams and micrograms and one mall over the molar mass. That's a G. And for this one I got and this should have been to two sig figs 2.8 times 10 to the minus seventh Moller DDT. Problem solved

As we all know that water age, water is considered will be polluted to be polluted if they dissolved if the dissolved off season, if they dissolved oxygen contained in less than It is less than five B. B mm. So according to the option in this problem, option, age correct and said here.


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