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Diagram and explain the two distinct mechanisms resulting in the formation of large chromosome deletions (without the concomitant production of duplications). Expla...

Question

Diagram and explain the two distinct mechanisms resulting in the formation of large chromosome deletions (without the concomitant production of duplications). Explain whether large deletion is balanced or unbalanced chromosome rearrangement;

Diagram and explain the two distinct mechanisms resulting in the formation of large chromosome deletions (without the concomitant production of duplications). Explain whether large deletion is balanced or unbalanced chromosome rearrangement;



Answers

Explain how the random alignment of homologous chromosomes during metaphase I contributes to variation in gametes produced by meiosis.

So the question asks how the homologous chromosomes aligning at the amount of faceplate contribute to gammy Variation by my oh sis. And this is best represented visually and cell with two chromosomes, um, one larger chromosome and one smaller chromosome. And because the cells undergoing bio sis are deployed, they have two copies of each chromosome, um, one, which is a pink paternal inherited maternally inherited copy of the chromosome, and one which is a green maternally inherited copy of the chromosome. And this is true for both the larger and smaller chromosomes. Um, and depending on how the chromosomes a line at the meta phase plate, different arrangements of the chromosomes, um, can be pulled into the daughter cells following my ASUs one, which subsequently affect the gammy it's produced in my house is too. So, for example, in arrangement, one of the chromosomes, um, the peril copy lines up such that all paternal copies of the larger and smaller chromosome are in the left side, and all copies of the all material copies of both larger and smaller chromosome are lined on the um, right side is what happens is that the daughter cells split peas, chromosomes, such that they only have only paternal copies of the chromosomes or only maternal copies. Um, and because they only have one copy one parental copy of each chromosome. This effects the chromosomes which enter the GAM eat in GAMUT arrangement won both the large and small chromosome inherited in the gannets are both the paternal copy and in Gambia arrangement to both the larger and smaller chromosome. Inherited by the gametes are the maternal copy, Um, in arrangement to the homologous chromosomes are separated in bio sis one such that the daughter cells only have one maternal copy of one chromosome, um, and one paternal copy of the other chromosome, and it differs between the two of them. You can see that this one has a large paternal copy of the chromosome and a small maternal copy, and it is the opposite in the second daughter. So So this produces gametes with a mix of maternal and paternal chromosomes. Um, and they are in different arrangements because, as you can see, an arrangement. Three. The large chromosome is paternal e inherited, um, in both of them, whilst the smaller is maternally inherited. But it is the opposite end. Gammy arrangement for where large chromosome is maternally inherited. Um, and thes smaller chromosome is maternally inherited and looking. How these two different arrangements can lead to four different gammy combinations. You can see how the alignment at the meta phase plate is important to contributing to gammy variations.

So there are a couple different chromosome mutations. The first is a deletion, which is removal of part of a chromosome. The next would be inversion or switch switching direction and then the final is trans location or taking a new position. So all of these chromosome mutations can lead to cancer because they create a change in the genome. So this change in the genome is not the wild type or how a cell should be. So because there is a mutation, this can lead to cancer.

We're going to be during friends, locations and solutions or some, uh, repetitive DNA. It's a selfie translocation. Look solution. Here. Look, it's that, but Okay, so friends, location Let's say we have DNA. It's going to be our over strands on in blue. We're going to have a whole repetitive I think so. So a translocation him means we're going to get, um, crossing over in these blue areas and we will get this product. It will happen after her pesters of. Now, if we have a capitulation, I say we have our single strands way. Have a couple of for press Tiberias. Well, these repressive areas can cross over to give us for a stranger suit like this where our pet citizens are crossing over. Because of that, we can get this shape where the loop is cut off and lost

To answer this question, we first have to understand what reciprocal translocation is referring to, and then how the chromosomes will pair up during pro face and also how they will be segregated during meta phase. So let's start out with what reciprocal translocation is referring to. So if we have two different chromosomes, chromosomes one and two, let's say and let's let's draw them out like this. This is from someone and this is actually going to be replicated set of chromosomes. Mhm. And this is going to be chromosome, too, right here. Like so. All right, So now if we undergo reciprocal translocation, we find that a portion of, uh, each of these chromosomes will be swapped. So let's say this top portion right here is going to be swamped with this top portion right here. And then we can also do the same thing on the second set so that top portion right there will be swamped with this top portion right here. All right, so the scenes that we have reciprocally so reciprocal just means that it's whatever you do, the one is done to the other. So we have reciprocally trans located or moved our section of the chromosome to another chromosome. And remember, this is a completely different chromosome. Okay, this is, uh, chromosome number two. So we have completely moved the genetic information from chromosome number one to a new location on chromosome number two, and vice versa. So now we have two chromosomes here that are going to be a little bit different from what they were initially. So now they'll have these trans located regions from the other chromosome at the very top, All right. And this, however, still is from his own number one. And this is coming the zone number two, but it contains portions from the other. Comes on. So the very top contains, uh, chromosome number two segment. And right here, this is from chromosome number one. However, we're still numbering the chromosome as, uh, number one number two. Due to the fact that these air still, for the most part, chromosome number one right here and comes up number two right here. So how will we segregate these condoms? Well, it turns out that we can, uh, basically pair up these chromosomes and a number of different ways during pro phase, and we can form the following a pairing. Okay, so when we undergo meta phase, we will segregate the chromosomes in the following way so we can form. Gimme that are going to be a full chromosome one. Okay, so this entire chromosome one and it's a normal chromosome one and then, ah, chromosome, too, with this segment from chromosome one. So this is going to be one of our gammy. Another game is going to be, um, a full chromosome, too. And then a chromosome one with a portion of chromosome two on it, Okay. And then another set of game meats. We'll just be normally segregated. Gimme so, meaning that we will basically have one of uh huh. Each segregated. So we'll just have normal chromosome one a normal chromosome, too. Then we will have, um, to or a hetero Vegas for our, uh, mixed. So we'll be able to say that this is going to be a mixed of our chromosome to one with chromosome, too, on top of it, and then our chromosome two with a segment from chromosome one. Then finally, we can have this last set of gametes that will be segregated in the following way. And actually the last way that we can segregate them is going to produce the same set of game. It's as in this first ah example here. So we're going to do the segregation in the same way where we have from someone. Maybe have chromosome, too, with a little segment of chromosome one on top of it. And then we have a full normal chromosome two and then a chromosome one with a segment of chromosome two on it. Right. And this is identical to the first set that we did. So these are our possible parents that we could have for our chromosomes. And this means that if we are Thio, answer the question. Well, this is exactly what we would put down right here as we have drawn it out.


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