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A solution of $0.1 mathrm{M}$ in $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$and $10^{-4} mathrm{M} mathrm{CrO}_{4}^{-2}$. If solid $mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ is gradually added to this solution, what...

Question

A solution of $0.1 mathrm{M}$ in $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$and $10^{-4} mathrm{M} mathrm{CrO}_{4}^{-2}$. If solid $mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ is gradually added to this solution, what will be the concentration of $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$when $mathrm{Ag}_{2} mathrm{CrO}_{4}$ begins to precipitate? $left[mathrm{K}_{e p}(mathrm{AgCl})=10^{-10} mathrm{M}^{2} ; mathrm{K}_{e p}left(mathrm{Ag}_{2} mathrm{CrO}_{4}ight)=10^{-12} mathrm{M}^{3}ight]$(a) $10^{-6} mathrm{M}$(b) $10^{-4} mathrm{M}$(c) $10^{-5} mathrm{M}$(d) $10^{-9} ma

A solution of $0.1 mathrm{M}$ in $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$and $10^{-4} mathrm{M} mathrm{CrO}_{4}^{-2}$. If solid $mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ is gradually added to this solution, what will be the concentration of $mathrm{Cl}^{-}$when $mathrm{Ag}_{2} mathrm{CrO}_{4}$ begins to precipitate? $left[mathrm{K}_{e p}(mathrm{AgCl})=10^{-10} mathrm{M}^{2} ; mathrm{K}_{e p}left(mathrm{Ag}_{2} mathrm{CrO}_{4} ight)=10^{-12} mathrm{M}^{3} ight]$ (a) $10^{-6} mathrm{M}$ (b) $10^{-4} mathrm{M}$ (c) $10^{-5} mathrm{M}$ (d) $10^{-9} mathrm{M}$



Answers

A solution is 0.010 $\mathrm{M}$ in $\mathrm{Ba}^{2+}$ and 0.020 $\mathrm{M}$ in $\mathrm{Ca}^{2+}$ . \begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. If sodium sulfate is used to selectively precipitate one of the }} \\ {\text { cations while leaving the other cation in solution, which }} \\ {\text { cation will precipitate first? What minimum concentration }} \\ {\text { of } \mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4} \text { will trigger the precipitation of the cation that }} \\ {\text { precipitates first? }}\end{array} \end{equation} \begin{equation}
\begin{array}{c}{\text { b. What is the remaining concentration of the cation that pre- }} \\ {\text { cipitates first, when the other cation begins to precipitate? }}\end{array}
\end{equation}

In this question were told about the solution that contains 2.0 time stands by miners. Formal syrup. Los Arcos on da walk 0.5 times turns by minus three. Willa lets you hire our kiss. So it's all if sodium hired I he's hot it. We'll see the Hiatt ight. Hey, scarce PSC. The Hyatt I is given to Russ's each 0.3 times by minus 17. All Nate Hyatt I The Key s tree off 7.9. Substantial. My last night precipitated first. So the office to hires in solution if we had ah, city on high and tight. Of course, the system hired. I do supply a high iodide high on. Okay, so it's just a plenty I and II hi onto these into these, but we each other to you, we press it first, So Okay, So what to do is to think that the cave we have Steve a Hyatt, I we're gonna have ah, 80 plus a kiss loss. I minus kiss. This is solid. So the K S P would be the concentration of 80 loss, much applied by concentration of eye minus right. And we had turned out It can't be of receive a higher 98.3 upstairs by minus 17 is because to the concentration of Egypt clauses to find zero I'm standing by miners full one supplied by Hi. So once concentration of high would be needed. All right. So you can find high so high in this case Will be wants to hit 13 them stairs by my 17. Divided by two time stands about minus four. Okay, So high would be all points 15 times stairs by my nose It's in for the PV high to we're gonna have Ah, solid. What issues? Shoots to produce PB chip plus loss. Thio eye line us A kiss. Pakis Can't be for me, Bebe To your boss. A kiss. I want to fly by High My US Square, sir. I kiss right. So were given the key S b o b b I to to be so finalist nine times since from minus nine. So say so by nine times times minus nine is equals to be given the concentration of PVT opposed to cool my five times since from minus three. That's 1.5 times tears about minus three much. Bye bye I mine us. Thank you. It's great. In this situation, high minus will be accosted these divine by ideas. Then find a square it off too. Okay. Said I was gonna be 7.9 times stones. Barbara, my last night, divided by 1.5 times. Stands about minus three and square it off. Answer. So this would be serial fines. 00 to 3. Okay. All right. So now we know the concentration off high minus here to be 0.23 And in this case is, uh, Munch. Qualify. I'm stands by minus 15. Okay. Showed out. Means does body time by the time hi. My in laws becomes, um, 0.0 0 to 3. Well, uh, PB hide you will be precipitated. All right, but we need to look on computer tease. I'm minus concentration value. And as for the Seaver, corn to Beth, the human counterparts has a lower high miners concentration value. And that means Dad's. This will be reached first before we reach this amount of fun. This is like orders of magnitude. Smaller Done this. So that means that deceiver how you died, we'll be impressive. Did that first because we're going to reach a small volume before we get to be Go on

So now we'll work on Problem 74 from Chapter 17. In this problem, we're told that a solution of sodium sulfate has had a drop wise to a solution that is 0.1 Mueller and Barium two plus and 0.1 Mueller in strong Team two. Plus what concentration of sulfate is necessary to begin precipitation and we're told to look like find changes and it gives us the Caspian dies Now. This also gives us two other questions that asked us, which can and will protect precipitate first. And what is the concentration of sulfate? Win the second cat and begins to facilitate so waken. Go ahead and calculate for burying and strontium. They amount of sulfate that's necessary to start precipitation. And then we can, uh, answer all three questions at once. So let's go ahead and write in the chaos. P values for each of these compounds can speak from barium. There's 1.1 times 10 to the minus 10 in for strontium, so fate it is. The K S P is equal to 3.2 times 10 to the minus seven. So for barium, we can calculate precipitation will start when Q is equal to chaos P, which equals 1.1 times 10 to the minus 10. Now this equals a concentration of barium, which we're told a 0.1 fuller. Okay, And then we multiply by the concentration of sulfate, which is s 04 to minus. And we saw for the concentration of sulfate and we get 1.1 times 10 to the minus eight. Smaller. We can do the same thing. For strontium Q equals chaos P, which equals 23.2 times 10 to the minus seven, which equals same concentration as we had herbarium for strontium time's a concentration of sulfate, which gives us the concentration of sulfate necessary. Mr. Precipitation for strong tea and sulfate is 3.2 times 10 to the minus five. So the first question is what concentration. So if it is necessary to begin precipitation. So for question A, we can see that it should be the lower concentration from the two that we just calculated. So it's 1.1 times 10 to the minus a for be. They ask us which cat had precipitates first. Now we could have we know that this should be burying based on our calculations, because the lower concentration of of sulfate is needed to start precipitating barium sulphate. And we could have guessed this based on the value of the chaos p since they're both 1 to 1 ratio of the ions and they had the same solution of the cat eye on. But we went ahead and did all the problems so we can answer all three questions at once, although it could have gone be directly from looking at the Caspian values. And then also the last question is what is castration of sulfate when the second cat and against precipitate and that we calculated already as being 3.2 times 10 to the minus five order?

This question were told that we have their want to moral crow mates. It's a coven. Eights. I own hand right higher. And, uh, if they heard it, the other solution of silver nitrate switch off this weird first precipitate. So we have given the key s before they see Vikram rates for company Temple. Cool, right? So I'm writing a dish issue shin off the, uh, salts. And, uh, this is prettiest. See a tree to Linus Dan Seiver chloride or produce a cheap loss. Waas CIA Linus Okay, so less That's what's ah ee teach you Seattle for ksb being questioned The concentration of PG plus square one supplied by concentration of Seattle full remind us and, uh, we're given the, um the concentration of the chrome it's to be Is there a point to So this is zero point you and she Full square is the question The key s p for the cruelty to say won't want to 10 Stanish power My ass too, huh? Sorry. Concentration offs Even you did would be I want you 1.2 times. Terrorists by minus drawer. He founded by one to you and the square roots of the answer said it should be two point fall time Stairs Power Saraswati minus six Mortar. So that is the amount off. Um, see the high only. And it's to get studio. Uh, son of diligent products. Now we can go to the next one, which is the civil cabinets. So we have a G to see you. Three Casby. That's would be e G Boss Square much Bye bye. Still teaching minors And this quests are coming from the question with Britain because we are two into here. Okay, so the kiss beautiful Deceiver Uh, Coven ages. It's wants one. Science stands by minus truck will be age it, boss. Swear I want to fly by. Concentration off the carbonate is zero once one Okay, so hey, Gee, boss, concentration would be, you know So this should be nine standards to power wants minus six roller and then 40. Hey, gcl ksb. We'll be your quest to you, Agent Waas What's a blind eye CEO Linus Ke sp is given to us to be one wants eights. Times tears by minus 10. It was to aid you plus concentration off CIA miners is, um 0.1 Careful, Agent lost concentration and it will be four point age. I'm standing by my understand? Yeah. So this of you one point Age, time, standards to power wants, understands well, hates motor. So the question access, which will what's is the first compounds precipitates. So the one would, uh uh, you know, West concentration off Seaver needed would be the first ones you precipitates, and that's going to be to see about it. All right, so cva chloride, we're precipitate first thing, okay?

So now work on Problem 76 from Chapter 17 and this problem. We're told that a one Mueller sodium sulfate solution is slowly added to 10 milliliters of solution. That a 0.2 millers and calcium to plus and 0.3 bowler and silvers less. And we're to ask which compound will precipitate first and whether it's calcium sulfate or silver sulfate, and how much sodium sulphate is necessary to initiate the precipitation so we can. We're given the chaos P values for calcium sulfate, uh, in for silver sulfate. For calcium sulfate, it's 2.4 times 10 to the minus file, and for silver sulfate, the chaos P is equal to 1.5 times 10 to the minus five. So here it's not immediately apparent based on the K S P values, which one will start precipitating? Firstly because they're so close and value, and second, because we have a 1 to 2 ratio for silver sulfate and a 1 to 1 ratio for calcium sulfate. So what we need to do is calculate ah, when q equals chaos p for each of the compounds to calculate the amount of sulfate that's needed So for calcium sulfate, it's 2.4 times 10 to the minus five in the concentration of, uh, calcium, we're told, is 0.2. This's another complicating factor because the concentrations of the initial Catalans are not the same. So from this we get a concentration of s O for two minus as being equal to 1.2 times 10 to the minus four. We could do the same thing for silver on the K S p. For silver sulfate, it's 1.5 times 10 to the minus I and then the concentration of silver is your 0.30 But we need to square it because of the ratio here. And then This was Sylvia, multiplied by the concentration of sulfate which, if we saw for we get a value of 1.67 times 10 to the minus four. So the first part, eh, In this problem, we're asked which compound will present a first calcium sulfate or silver sulfate. So from these values for Sofia concentration, we can see we can see that the lower sulphate concentration is necessary for calcium sulfate to precipitate Socso for will precipitate first in the second part of this problem is how much sodium sulphate solution must be added to initiate the precipitation. So we know that we need this one point to 10 10 to the minus for concentration so we can multiply this by the volume of our solution to get the amount of moles necessary, which is 1.2 times 10 to the minus six. Then we can divide this by the concentration of the sodium sulfate, which we're told is one mole per leader to get a value of 1.2 times 10 to the minus six leaders or 1.2 micro leaders. Is the concentration necessary to start this precipitous?


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