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How & mcroRNAs promote Eene slering u banslationl repESSIOLLsnall doublc stranded RNA transcrbed processed by RISK ad ARGONAUT that degrades all sorts of mRNAs ...

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How & mcroRNAs promote Eene slering u banslationl repESSIOLLsnall doublc stranded RNA transcrbed processed by RISK ad ARGONAUT that degrades all sorts of mRNAs sall double stranded RNA transcrbed processed by RISK and resulting single stranded RNA-bits are laaded outo ARGONAUT tat seeh trancripts (mRVA S) that are homologols promoting degradation of te mRVA (silexingS stalling anelaton (repression). mcroRNAs directly hybridize to mRNA ad pronte transcript degradation microRNAs promote gene s

How & mcroRNAs promote Eene slering u banslationl repESSIOLL snall doublc stranded RNA transcrbed processed by RISK ad ARGONAUT that degrades all sorts of mRNAs sall double stranded RNA transcrbed processed by RISK and resulting single stranded RNA-bits are laaded outo ARGONAUT tat seeh trancripts (mRVA S) that are homologols promoting degradation of te mRVA (silexingS stalling anelaton (repression). mcroRNAs directly hybridize to mRNA ad pronte transcript degradation microRNAs promote gene slleiring translational repression depending on thc type of sgL factor tht recnuts RNA polymerase to tbe txanscripticn start site Save Question 8 (1 point) Wuch of te follonng statements about centomeres NOT TRUE colttnenes moked mn clemoscnie condensItion and dauglter cell" segrepation &ing cell drsion centromeres bund ncrotubules and other protei coplexes thut recozize certam DNA motfs requred fcr DNA replication cenjohicte defined by epetitiie DNA sequene motlfs that deteruiix Celhfolnerie Feglon ad binxd to centroteric DNA and udre the formationl of spuxdle hucrotubule netwaks protein complere; that centomnera bird nucrotbules Jd &tker protem complexe that recoguze certun DNA motifs requred fr chromosomne sgegton Save



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Glenn Croston and his colleagues studied the relation between chromatin structure and transcription activity. In one set of experiments, they measured the level of in vitro transcription of a Drosophila gene by RNA polymerase II with the use of DNA and various combinations of histone proteins (G. E. Croston et al. 1991. Science $251: 643-649$ ). First, they measured the level of transcription for naked DNA, with no associated histone proteins. Then, they measured the level of transcription after nucleosome octamers (without H1) were added to the DNA. The addition of the octamers caused the level of transcription to drop by $50 \% .$ When both the nucleosome octamers and the H1 proteins were added to the DNA, transcription was greatly repressed, dropping to less than $1 \%$ of that obtained with naked DNA, as shown in the table below.GALA-VP16 is a protein that binds to the DNA of certain eukar yotic genes. When GALA-VP16 is added to DNA, the level of RNA polymerase II transcription is greatly elevated. (TABLE CAN'T COPY)Even in the presence of the H1 protein, GALA-VP16 stimulates high levels of transcription. Propose a mechan ism for how the H1 protein represses transcription and how GAL4-VP16 overcomes this repression. Explain how your proposed mechan ism would produce the results obtained in these experiments.

For this question, we are looking at DNA transcription in the presence of different proteins, including the opt Immers of the nuclear zones. We also have the H1 protein, and we're looking at this special protein in this experiment called gal, for G p 16. So first we can take a role. Look at the role of D. N. A. And the optimizers and H. One that combined to it. So DNA, of course, is going to be that single string.

For this question. We're looking at DNA transcription and the role of certain proteins involved with it, including the nuclear. So um optimizers, We also have the protein H1. And during this experiment they're looking at a special protein called Gal for VP 16. So here we can start by taking a look at DNA transcription and the role of our customers and this H1 his stone protein. So of course DNA is going to be in that double stranded structure and you're going to have special regions associated with it. You're going to have a promoter region and you can also have certain repressor and other regions involved with this. The role of October's and the H1. Histone protein is to rabble up this double stranded DNA in order to condense it so it can fit in the nucleus. And you're going to have to kind of confirmations of the histone proteins. You have a methylated form where you have methyl groups attached to the DNA and the histone proteins and you have an assimilated form. And there you have a Seattle groups attached to your histone proteins. And those are going to affect the way that your DNA reps around those his stones. So in your methylated form, DNA is going to be closely wound to each of the histone proteins. And you're going to have very little space in between. In the assimilated form, it's going to be in a looser confirmation and you'll have much more space in between each of your his stones. And this is going to affect the way your genes can be read. So of course inside of that DNA we have those genes of interest. But in order to transcribe these genes we need preliminary races and other proteins able to activate and attach to those specific regions. So in the methylated form, you can imagine that the headstones that are close together. leave very little space for your preliminary races and other proteins to buy. So there is going to be very difficult to transcribe those jeans. Whereas in the assimilated form of your headstones there's plenty of space for your preliminary races to access as well as your other transcription factors and proteins. So you're set elated form is going to increase the rate of transcription. Or as your methylated form can decrease or even deactivate gene transcription. So here are the roles of the October's and H1 is to bind that protein and to down regulate or decrease the amount of proteins created from the genes. So knowing that we can take a guess at the role and function of this special protein, gal for BP 16. So since this protein is going to function and prevent the function and decreased transcription caused by the nucleus, oh mok tumors and your histone proteins. You can imagine that gal for VP 16 is going to probably bind to your his stones or to the DNA. Around where those headstones. Woodbine. And this is going to prevent your assimilated form from becoming methylated and closing that gene area and from down regulating gene transcription. So if it's going to bind to either the his stones or the DNA in either of these areas, it's going to increase the transcription and it's going to prevent it from being inhibited since it's also going to increase the rate of transcription. Since in the graph were given that the naked DNA, meaning just this DNA alone without any additional proteins has a rate of 100 and our DNA Plus this gal for VP 16 has a rate of 1000. This protein has a good chance of binding to this promoter region because the promoter region has a tendency to increase the rate at which the genes downstream are transcribed. So if this protein binds to this region here, it's going to increase the times the problem arises. Transcribe the genes and it's going to probably increase the affinity for the area for your different transcription factors and that's going to increase the overall rate that we see in the data provided. So overall the important pieces of information to get from this is that your october's and your histone proteins decrease the rate of transcription by binding it into these confirmations that are closed where the genes can be hidden and inaccessible to your preliminary races. The gal for VP 16 likely prevents that binding by those ah customers or H. One and leaves it in this open confirmation where your prelim erases and transcription factors can access it. It also likely has an increasing or stimulating effect, possibly by binding to the promoter or some other stimulating region that's going to increase the rate at which that gene area or region of the D. N. A. Is transcribed.

Okay, So what's going to happen? His his tone, medical transfer is in his stone. Do you settle? Aces will methylate. And do you settle eight that had a re chrome metin, respectively? So they're gonna escalate like their names? And he a set eight uh, tomorrow chroma 10.

Here wants us to explain how the short introduction, the introduction rather of short segments of Arnie containing that three prime untranslated region site sequences rather might remove that inhibition. So we know that the three prime untranslated region rather is essentially going Teoh function to basically improve in em, um, stability here. And also in this particular face, it can trump turn on the translation of enzyme. So by essentially allowing for the end times to be turned on in this particular case, I'm the three prime untranslated region here can help remove that inhibition. Did it the fact that it could promote DNA assimilation rather than methylation?


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