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Complete the character_matix forland plantsabsentprezent)Iotarn Ag4E (ourgroup) LvenyoruHoreeClub MossesFernaCycadsConiier;nospernRemem bec Lbut poR"Guard cell...

Question

Complete the character_matix forland plantsabsentprezent)Iotarn Ag4E (ourgroup) LvenyoruHoreeClub MossesFernaCycadsConiier;nospernRemem bec Lbut poR"Guard cellCDI5) Map the traits (eg- 'A'; 'B'; "C' etc) from the character matrix (above) to the appropriate branch o the phylogeny. Each numbered branch may have more than one Zpp Ot each uunbshodl trait should only occur once in the entire phylogeny: (11 marks} Fill in the trait(e) for cach brnch of the phylogeny:

Complete the character_matix forland plants absent prezent) Iotarn Ag4E (ourgroup) Lvenyoru Horee Club Mosses Ferna Cycads Coniier; nospern Remem bec Lbut poR" Guard cell CDI 5) Map the traits (eg- 'A'; 'B'; "C' etc) from the character matrix (above) to the appropriate branch o the phylogeny. Each numbered branch may have more than one Zpp Ot each uunbshodl trait should only occur once in the entire phylogeny: (11 marks} Fill in the trait(e) for cach brnch of the phylogeny: Branch Trait(s) 65 44 lolnol) #mmtn Jaut T" han atreddly Lathnled Mnen Ha Arisualrang Hur peb Muly ichil Woad avelve d carleet Jada lott aooueuolved bY %4t uheneruand HEanaal Heenunnea



Answers

Construct a cladogram based on the following data. Mosses are plants with no vascular tissue. Horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (pines and other plants with naked seeds), and angiosperms (flowering plants) are all vascular plants. Seeds are absent in all but the gymnosperms and angiosperms. Angiosperms are the only seed plants with flowers. (Hint: To help you construct the cladogram, draw a simple table showing which characters are present in each group. See Fig. $23-9 .$ )

Construct up plato tom in which of plant in which the origin based on that's fine like that. 16 and she yeah ancestors yeah. Mhm. Mhm. Community yeah ancestors and then. Mhm. And then loses. Mhm. And their relatives. Mhm. Mhm. After this. Mhm. Mhm. Yeah. Yeah. It is water yeah conducting. I was pretty sure. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. And his. Mhm. Okay. For funds and their relatives. Okay. Mhm. Mhm. After this this portion is. Mhm. Mhm. Seat. Yeah. And this portion is. Yeah. Mhm. Thank you corn. Yeah bearing plants. And after this. Uh huh. Yes A branch originated from. Mhm. Okay. Only living plants. It is. Mhm. Flower seeds enclosed in okay in food. Okay. And and the last portion is. Yeah. Yeah. Lot of people we asked portion is flattering lunch.

Yeah. Look, Hi there. So this question isn't asking about the hypothesis on what's being supported that either. It is that the tiger moth is either jamming the bat sonar, and the bat is not able to packed. Pray for that. The fact is being warned because the law is toxic. So he's putting out some sort of moths big, some sort of chemical out there to warn us talking ability of the mob itself. Now, the thing about the way that the bat hunt is something that we need to explore first and then try toe understand what's happening with the moth is doing in response to the back. So the first thing is, is that the bat? We'll send out a serious of clicks, and it has a really big gears toward that picks up the sounds bouncing off from the object, which that it's sending its clicks and pop sort of Siris of sounds is an ultrasonic on DSO. What is trying to do is perceived where objects are located face solely on sound. Now here's the thing that the tiger moth also can make clicks and sounds that are on the ultrasonic range. And so when it has a fat that's targeting it as a pray that the moth can yeah, do clicks, sounds back and make it where the back misjudges a t. First. There is a little bit of a startle response on the part of the back, which gives the tiger moth a little bit of a learning curve. Opportunity. Thio. Give it a little bit of time to be able to learn what the actual specific clicks and noises for the fact that targeting it as a price. So there's a little bit of on the graph, a little bit of looping up and down when there's a few uh, stabs at the actual tiger moth in the tiger moth will give some clicks back, and so makes it where it seems like it's a phantom Itt's someplace located different spots on what the bad is expecting on. Then, after a period of time, then the tiger moths learns the frequency at which that the bad is doing. It sounds that it's clicks so that it can mimic. You can mirror let the sound that the bat is producing. Okay, so when the sound is being emitted on, that would be this click or this ultrasonic. It produces a sign, way and the width of the curve of the park. It's there's an up and down there's a hill in a valley in one of those is a sine wave on. And with the length of that one sign way can measure and tell us what, how much and a certain period of time. So having 10 sine waves in a second, as opposed to 100 sine waves in a second, Because it's per time. Then we can compare frequency. And it's the frequency that we're talking about here. And when you look at the actual shape of the sine wave on a curve, what's bouncing back from back to the ma is a particular frequency, a particular length, if you will have that sign life. So what the moth is trying to do is it's trying to learn is it's trying to kind of shorten it up a little bit to make it so that it appears. Or it sounds that here's the sound as if it's bouncing back when it's bouncing back in a space physical space away from where the moth actually is located. On DSO. Comparing the grass and looking at the patterns that are in on the diagrams. So they kind of go opposites of each other for a little while and then right around 200 2, 300 milliseconds back there are five or six giving off signals at five or six. Poultry Harbor six on and then the Tiger Moth Raj. It's itself down. This the one that started at 68 it comes down all the way to five or six to match. And there is a collection of maybe 20 different points along the way where they're catching What is the Tiger Mosque cliffs? Click Pulse rate? And it's continuing to do, uh, where it's mimicking the back. And it's important that they used naive bets because they had to have that startled in giving the opportunity for the tiger mocked Babel Thio learn what the bats coal is so that he has enough time in the natural startle response to be able thio change its own natural frequency to match to mimic what the bad has

The question is that we're supposed to look at a file, a genetic tree and look at specifically the 10 groups of Bilateral and we're to label each of them as having asylum, having a humus hill only if we're to look at and say, Okay, they have a human steel and a reduce Ealham, or if in fact, that there is nobody county whatsoever. So the first thing is to define some of these things so defining the seal, Um, we're going to define it as the body cavity and that its position to surround the digestive tract, and it contains the digestive tract and the organs, and it has fluid in it. And then the humus ill itself is primarily a body cavity, but it is usually found in vertebrates, and it typically contains a circulatory fluid known as him a limp. And it is in this human lymph where there is, um, between that and some of the other organs where there is an exchange of materials. Okay, So the first step was to go down the list of the 10 of bilateral and to put onto the file a genetic tree labeling whether they have no body cavity, as in a Seela and Plati hell mentees. Or if they have a pseudo Salem, which would be then some sort of, ah, modified or reduce Salem and a hey Maciel. And that would be routed Fra and Nima Tota. And then I would say that once that have seal, um but then also have Hamas ill would be, um, Alaska Arthur Pota And with arthropod, of course, there's the insects and crustaceans and then those that have Silom Onley And no, he Maciel would be heavy core data economy armada core data on an Elita with analysts. They have a close circulatory system, which is a lot like our own, our very own circulatory system. So since they have a close circulatory system, they do not have that humans feel. Typically, most organisms that we're gonna have a human cell are gonna have open circulatory systems because they've gotta have the circulatory fluid surrounding the organs. In addition to labeling whether the organisms have asylum or if they have only or if they have Mahama sell only or if it is a kind of a mixture between the famous seal and having reduced or smaller just not nearly quiet as involved as a whole entire seal, Um, or having absolutely no body cavity. There is also two questions to answer one of the questions, it says. Out of the three major plate, one of the plates that could be found on the diagram is due Tourist Home. The second and the third is the My Folks Truck Gaza and Appetizers Zola Looking at where these three plates sit on the entire of the pilot genetic tree, we find that the due to Estonia, all of the groups that air the due to stones have asylum. And so very likely the common ancestor for the Dura Stone is going toe. Have the seal, Um, And then when we look at the common ancestor between the life of Protozoa and the dice Isoa, what we find is that there is actually a mix. There's a mix of having that truce Eelam, And then there's other ones that are in the grouping that have more of what they call a pseudo seal, Um, or where there is more of a human seal and some some what pocketing of the seal? Um, it's not a true ceiling, but it z somewhat there is, ah, body cabinet, at least present. And then, uh, some of those that are involved in the groupings that don't even have the body cavity to build a have fluid in. And so the common ancestor is very likely to on those two, very likely to have started with no body cavity whatsoever and has a presence of Salem in the animals changed over the course of the evolution over the history that's involved. So we have at one point where there's not any body cavity and the more simpler animals that just simply is not a body cavity. And we go then Thio, where it's more of like a studio cilla mate. There's, um, out pockets. But it's not a true in fact entire seal them. And at the very end of that extreme is very much like what the do tourist OEMs have. And that is the true seal. Um, it's and it's indicated in the diagram as I've been answering the question. So the first question Waas to label the second question was analyzing the common ancestor between the shooter stones and then also between the little Fat Rocca's oh and the Giza. So, uh, and then the last part is what would be the sort of trend or what would be the way that we would see the evolution so would go from not having to having a variety of mixture. And this is especially with into in terms of the two claims over much later, um, in an earlier development and due to Estonia didn't pop out until much sooner in our evolutionary time period.

For this question, we first need to find out which nucleotide bases are changed between each of these different species. So here, for our original progenitor, we have an amino a nucleotide sequence of GTC A a t g a c a. From here, we can check the amino.


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