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Could vou best deacnbe hcorn; In the e#periment conducted by McCEntock and colleagues regton ol the abertant Dnomo Om= indcated 6 the atron? tne fetutt (cuprecaltra...

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Could vou best deacnbe hcorn; In the e#periment conducted by McCEntock and colleagues regton ol the abertant Dnomo Om= indcated 6 the atron? tne fetutt (cuprecaltrantlcton the reiul of gene dupeaaton Ihe retult umple transloration (euit 0t deletion Otst respons ble for the Erpenment on cofn chromotome confirm that crossing prder recombination of alleles; of the wary inhentance Ihe knob chromosome correlated wth inheritance endosperm recombrnant Lene correlated the separation of the chromosomal a

could vou best deacnbe h corn; In the e#periment conducted by McCEntock and colleagues regton ol the abertant Dnomo Om= indcated 6 the atron? tne fetutt (cuprecaltrantlcton the reiul of gene dupeaaton Ihe retult umple transloration (euit 0t deletion Otst respons ble for the Erpenment on cofn chromotome confirm that crossing prder recombination of alleles; of the wary inhentance Ihe knob chromosome correlated wth inheritance endosperm recombrnant Lene correlated the separation of the chromosomal abnormalitieson chromosome phenotybes chromosome non-homolgous the freqleng; transtocation 0f The knob region chromosome Was odtened cytogenetic anahss proved useless: limiting factor in calculating the actual distance betwcer tuto linked genes[ short distance betxeen the [o linked Benes the loxi tield 0f offspring trom tes-Cross multiple crossovers on the same chromosome chemically-induced chromosomal rearrangements 30 Which of the follwing statements INCORRECT? Insulin was the first FDA approved hormone therapy cofrectly crcale Insulin for hormone therapy CNB necessan ordere refers t0 the dono gene specimen Transgeni Torrication used t0 create knockout mice Genelic most Iikely - Food source 0f undifferentiated cells? 31. Which of the following [ssues embryonic cells kidney cells blood cells bacterial cells introduce Bene product; Frosty: Into plants was performed 32. The following cloning experimenf [ of cold temperatures_ either = end If the restriction site that make the plants tolerant synthesized with restriction sites The gene encoding Frosty; fro, was on the plasmid TCATGA (Arrows represent cut sites) AGTACT esized fro gene look like?



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You wish to find the cis-acting regulatory DNA elements responsible for the transcriptional responses of two genes, $c$ -fos and globin. Transcription of the $c$ -fos gene is activated in response to fibroblast growth factor $(\mathrm{FGF}),$ but it is inhibited by cortisol (Cort). On the other hand, transcription of the globin gene is not affected by either FGF or cortisol, but it is stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin (EP). To find the cis-acting regulatory DNA elements responsible for these transcriptional responses, you use the following clones of the $c$ -fos and globin genes, as well as two "hybrid" combinations (fusion genes), as shown in the diagram below. The letter A low. The letter A represents the intact $c$ -fos gene, $D$ represents the intact globin gene, and $\mathrm{B}$ and $\mathrm{C}$ represent the $c$ -fos-globin gene fusions. The $c$ -fos and globin exons (E) and introns (I) are numbered. For example, $\mathrm{E} 3(\mathrm{f})$ is the third exon of the $c$ -fos gene and $12(\mathrm{g})$ is the second intron of the globin gene. (These labels are provided to help you make your answer clear.) The transcription start sites (black arrows) and polyadenylation sites (red arrows) are indicated. You introduce all four of these clones simultaneously into tissue-culture cells and then stimulate individual aliquots of these cells with one of the three factors. Gel analysis of the RNA isolated from the cells gives the following results. The levels of transcripts produced from the introduced genes in response to various treatments are shown; the intensity of these bands is proportional to the amount of transcript made from a particular clone. (The failure of a band to appear indicates that the level of transcript is undetectable. a. Where is the DNA element that permits activation by FGF? b. Where is the DNA element that permits repression by Cort? c. Where is the DNA element that permits induction by EP? Explain your answer.

Hello there students today. We're gonna be answering these three part questions. Let's start with the first part in part A. So far to go about answering this question they are bringing up the F. One plants for assaulting. Mhm. From. Yeah. The cross. Yes. Between. I'm sorry. You heard helping? Yeah. Between bulk. That's not working. Two boys. These embry parents. Yeah. Yeah. Show yeah. Oh. Mhm. The fans and the bands are your A more okay. Yeah. You too. A. Three four B. One B. Two. He'll be very okay. You go back for part A. So for part B. How you go about that? Is that brand? Mhm. Any band? He won? Thank you. Mhm. Okay. Hello. I have my pain. Okay. Band A one is present. Yeah. Oh yeah. The angry. Yeah wines. Yeah. Yeah. So. Okay. Cannot things use. Yeah. Four recombination. Sure. Yeah mapping. For hard to see how we go about that. Okay. Yes it is careful. Okay. Yeah that. Do me have one plant. Okay. Or no curls. Yeah. Yes. Two plates possessing. Mhm. Only creams. Day one. Okay. Four. Yeah. Oops. In A. Three. Mhm. Let's proceed. Okay. Four something. Mhm. Friend. Yeah. To get the table. Yeah. C. D. D. N. A. Yeah. One. Mhm. Mhm. Okay. Just ask me you know this one. Okay. Sure. Do you yeah recognized what? Uh huh. Oh FL. S. L. P. Which? Mhm. Physical. Yeah. Let me face your life. Mhm. Mhm. Yeah. Thank you. And and A. Four. Yeah. Yeah. Mhm. And 82 83 C. G. M. A. Mhm. And this sick king pro recognized. Mhm. Yeah. Yeah. We also have more space recognize, right? Yeah. One car fell. Okay. Yeah. Rich. Okay. He fixed the sea. For which such a plan B. Federal Life. Okay. Mhm. Mhm. That's been good. three. Yeah. Damon. I am. Okay. What? Okay. Yeah. B. Two Linkage. Yeah. Distance. Yeah. Grateful. The time person. And, yep. That is it? Help you found this helpful and please take care. Okay.

For this question. It's important to note how his stones function and how these can be sort of circumnavigated in order to increase the activity of DNA transcription. So here we have this special protein of gala VP 16 and we are told that this is going to bind the D. N. A. Itself and increase the rate at which it is transcribed. So if you imagine a DNA strand, this is going to consist of multiple portions, one of which will include say an enhancement region, which is going to increase the rate at which the DNA strand is transcribed by the RNA polymerase. So you can imagine that because the gallup VP 16 is going to increase the rate at which your D. N. A. Train Strand is transcribed. That perhaps this gala VP-16 is going to bind to the enhancement region and cause the up regulation of the genes in the sequence. From there, you have to propose why the his stones might be blocked because of this. So here we can go over the role of his stones. These are specialized proteins inside the nucleus of the cell that rely on rattling and twisting DNA around their own proteins. And this is going to help condense that DNA inside of the nucleus and keep it localized and un active. These nucleus homes can be close together and when they occur inside their methylated state or under other circumstances they can appear far apart or what we would call open and and a sad elated state. So the difference between these two is how tightly the DNA is bound to these structures and the amount of space between each of these histone proteins. When you have more space in between these histamines, there's more room for your preliminary races to fit in and to transcribe the genes inside of these open sequences. Whereas when they are close together and the jeans are very closed or they can even be hidden inside of the histone protein. During the rattling process. Your primary races are not going to be able to access it well and the transcription rate will decrease. So for this gala VP 16 protein, you can imagine that in order to prevent the his stones from having an effect, or the october's having an effect on the transcription rate. Perhaps they're going to prevent the binding of DNA to these histone proteins themselves. Or at least they're going to block the binding of the DNA molecules. Otherwise you could consider that perhaps they're going to prevent them from closing in together and they can increase the repulsive effects between the histone molecules so that they're not going to have any effect on the gene transcription rate of this protein. So here the important things to consider is that gala VP 16 may bind to an enhancement region inside the DNA strand and that's going to up regulate the amount of times the gene is transcribed by polyamorous is when it is found, it's possible that it could block the action of his stones by preventing DNA from raveling around them in that tight bound structure, or it could just prevent them from closing in as tightly as in their methylated form. Those are likely some of the best Hypothesis as to why this gala VP 16 is going to increase the regulation of jeans by increasing their transcription rate even in the presence of his stones and those nuclear so mop timmers.

For this question, we are looking at DNA transcription in the presence of different proteins, including the opt Immers of the nuclear zones. We also have the H1 protein, and we're looking at this special protein in this experiment called gal, for G p 16. So first we can take a role. Look at the role of D. N. A. And the optimizers and H. One that combined to it. So DNA, of course, is going to be that single string.

For this question. We're looking at DNA transcription and the role of certain proteins involved with it, including the nuclear. So um optimizers, We also have the protein H1. And during this experiment they're looking at a special protein called Gal for VP 16. So here we can start by taking a look at DNA transcription and the role of our customers and this H1 his stone protein. So of course DNA is going to be in that double stranded structure and you're going to have special regions associated with it. You're going to have a promoter region and you can also have certain repressor and other regions involved with this. The role of October's and the H1. Histone protein is to rabble up this double stranded DNA in order to condense it so it can fit in the nucleus. And you're going to have to kind of confirmations of the histone proteins. You have a methylated form where you have methyl groups attached to the DNA and the histone proteins and you have an assimilated form. And there you have a Seattle groups attached to your histone proteins. And those are going to affect the way that your DNA reps around those his stones. So in your methylated form, DNA is going to be closely wound to each of the histone proteins. And you're going to have very little space in between. In the assimilated form, it's going to be in a looser confirmation and you'll have much more space in between each of your his stones. And this is going to affect the way your genes can be read. So of course inside of that DNA we have those genes of interest. But in order to transcribe these genes we need preliminary races and other proteins able to activate and attach to those specific regions. So in the methylated form, you can imagine that the headstones that are close together. leave very little space for your preliminary races and other proteins to buy. So there is going to be very difficult to transcribe those jeans. Whereas in the assimilated form of your headstones there's plenty of space for your preliminary races to access as well as your other transcription factors and proteins. So you're set elated form is going to increase the rate of transcription. Or as your methylated form can decrease or even deactivate gene transcription. So here are the roles of the October's and H1 is to bind that protein and to down regulate or decrease the amount of proteins created from the genes. So knowing that we can take a guess at the role and function of this special protein, gal for BP 16. So since this protein is going to function and prevent the function and decreased transcription caused by the nucleus, oh mok tumors and your histone proteins. You can imagine that gal for VP 16 is going to probably bind to your his stones or to the DNA. Around where those headstones. Woodbine. And this is going to prevent your assimilated form from becoming methylated and closing that gene area and from down regulating gene transcription. So if it's going to bind to either the his stones or the DNA in either of these areas, it's going to increase the transcription and it's going to prevent it from being inhibited since it's also going to increase the rate of transcription. Since in the graph were given that the naked DNA, meaning just this DNA alone without any additional proteins has a rate of 100 and our DNA Plus this gal for VP 16 has a rate of 1000. This protein has a good chance of binding to this promoter region because the promoter region has a tendency to increase the rate at which the genes downstream are transcribed. So if this protein binds to this region here, it's going to increase the times the problem arises. Transcribe the genes and it's going to probably increase the affinity for the area for your different transcription factors and that's going to increase the overall rate that we see in the data provided. So overall the important pieces of information to get from this is that your october's and your histone proteins decrease the rate of transcription by binding it into these confirmations that are closed where the genes can be hidden and inaccessible to your preliminary races. The gal for VP 16 likely prevents that binding by those ah customers or H. One and leaves it in this open confirmation where your prelim erases and transcription factors can access it. It also likely has an increasing or stimulating effect, possibly by binding to the promoter or some other stimulating region that's going to increase the rate at which that gene area or region of the D. N. A. Is transcribed.


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