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Beryllium is an tremely lightweight metal that is used in many industries, such as aerospace and electronics. Long-term exposure to beryllium can cause people to b...

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Beryllium is an tremely lightweight metal that is used in many industries, such as aerospace and electronics. Long-term exposure to beryllium can cause people to become sensitized Once an individual is sensitized, continued exposure can result in chronic beryllium disease, which involves scarring of the lungs In a study of the effects of exposure to beryllium; workers were categorized by their duration of exposure (in years) and by their disease status (diseased, sensitized, or normal) The res

Beryllium is an tremely lightweight metal that is used in many industries, such as aerospace and electronics. Long-term exposure to beryllium can cause people to become sensitized Once an individual is sensitized, continued exposure can result in chronic beryllium disease, which involves scarring of the lungs In a study of the effects of exposure to beryllium; workers were categorized by their duration of exposure (in years) and by their disease status (diseased, sensitized, or normal) The results were as follows: Duration of Exposure 1t0 < 5 25 Diseased Sensitized Normal 127 203 Download data Test the hypothesis of independence_ Use the & 0.01 level of significance and the P-value method with the TI-84 calculator What do you conclude? Corect answer: ae not righi-tailed Part 2 out of 4 Find the P~value. Round your answer to four decimal places. The P-value is



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One of the chemical controversies of the nineteenth century concerned the element beryllium (Be). Berzelius originally claimed that beryllium was a trivalent element (forming $\mathrm{Be}^{3+}$ ions) and that it gave an oxide with the formula $\mathrm{Be}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}$ . This resulted in a calculated atomic mass of 13.5 for beryllium. In formulating his periodic table, Mendeleev proposed that beryllium was divalent (forming $\mathrm{Be}^{2+}$ ions) and that it gave an oxide with the formula BeO. This assumption gives an atomic mass of $9.0 .$ In $1894,$ A. Combes (Comptes Rendus $1894,$ p. 1221 ) reacted beryllium with the anion $C_{5} \mathrm{H}_{7} \mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}$ and measured the density of the gaseous product. Combes's data for two different experiments are as follows:
$$\begin{array}{lll}{\text { Mass }} & {0.2022 \mathrm{g}} & {0.2224 \mathrm{g}} \\ {\text { Volume }} & {22.6 \mathrm{cm}^{3}} & {26.0 \mathrm{cm}^{3}} \\ {\text { Temperature }} & {13^{\circ} \mathrm{C}} & {17^{\circ} \mathrm{C}} \\ {\text { Pressure }} & {765.2 \mathrm{mm} \mathrm{Hg}} & {764.6 \mathrm{mm}}\end{array}$$
If beryllium is a divalent metal, the molecular formula of the product will be $\mathrm{Be}\left(\mathrm{C}_{5} \mathrm{H}_{7} \mathrm{O}_{2}\right)_{2} ;$ if it is trivalent, the formula will be $\mathrm{Be}\left(\mathrm{C}_{5} \mathrm{H}_{7} \mathrm{O}_{2}\right)_{3} .$ Show how Combes's data help to confirm that beryllium is a divalent metal.

For part a. Using the data given let's predict the atomic radius of bismuth. So we know that the be I. B. R. Bond length. Thank you. Is equal to 2.63 and strums. And we know that the uh atomic radius of row mean you can look up. Yeah. Right. Yeah. This is equal to 1.20 ang strums. So the be I. B. R bond would be equal to the atomic radius to be a br bond length. Mhm. Equal to the atomic radius of B. I. Plus the atomic radius br And this is equal to 2.63. X Strom's equal to the Atomic Radius mm hmm. This month. Yeah. Plus 1.20 Angst Rome's. So solving here we can find that the atomic radiance mm of Esma would be equal to 1.43 Angst drums. For part B. Let's write a balanced equation between the reaction of bismuth, tri bromide and hydroponic acid. This would produce B. i. pr three And an H 20. To balance 62 and A three. And there would be are balanced equation for C. Based on the properties is bismuth they metal metal oid or non metallic elements. So we know that bismuth pre oxide reacts. Yeah. With acidic solution in forms of salt and water, it means it is strongly basic. Yes. Mhm. As bismuth oxide is basic, bismuth. Mhm. Must be a metal mhm. For party using the electron configuration of bismuth, explain why we can Produced b. i. f five. So if we look at the ground state electron configuration of bismuth, it would be zen in four F 14. Five D 10. Yeah. Six S two six P three. And if we excite one of the electrons, we're going to excite one electron mhm to produce mhm. And excited electron configuration for bismuth, which would be seen on for 14 five D 10. Yeah. Six S one six p 36 D one. These five Singley filled orbital's. Yeah. Okay. five. We're talking about these five here then hybridize. Yeah. To give five. Yeah. Sp three D orbital's of equivalent energy. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Mhm. Which then combined. Mhm. Yeah. With the half filled to possess. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Thank you. Orbital's of the five flooring atoms. Mhm. Mhm. Yeah. Yeah. Mhm. And form sigma bonds. Yeah. Mhm. Giving a tribunal by parameter. All structure. Mhm. Okay. Mhm. Yeah. Part e why does the pen to highlight form with flooring but not with other religions? Chlorine is the most reactive Yeah. Of all elements in the periodic table. Mhm. The reactivity of intelligence is in decreasing order. Floor Een followed by chlorine, followed by bro. Mean followed by either chlorine has a high ability to remove electrons. Yeah. Yeah. From other substances. Mhm. Yeah. There is a large ionization potential. Mhm. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. And electro negativity difference. Mhm. Yeah. Mhm. Between floor Een? Yeah. And bismuth. Yeah. Yeah. Therefore, Yeah. Chlorine. Yeah. Forms a Penta. He lied. Cars hurry. Forms a pen to He lied. Yeah. With this month. Mhm. But the other intelligence do not.

In this problem, we are given the following information. The measured bismuth bromine bond length in business bismuth tri bromide is 263 p commuters based on this data this value and the data in figure 7.8 were asked to a predict the atomic radius of bismuth. Well the B r B R that should be B I right there. Yeah, I'm going to just make sure I have the I first the B I B R bond We know is 263 Pekka meters and that's going to be the sum of the atomic radius of bismuth plus roaming atomic radius and atomic radius. We can look up in the table that's referenced in the book what the atomic radius of bismuth is. And I'm looking here looking it is 120 Peak m. So we're going to get 263 pick a. m equals X plus 120 PK m an X. Which is the atomic radius of bismuth Is going to be equal to 143 PK m. That's part a be says write a balanced chemical equation for the following were given the words and I'll go ahead and write these out so you can see what I'm doing. Smith three oxide. I'm business try brian By treating solid. Business three oxide with hydro bro. Make acid which is the solution. Um and we form or produce B smith try bromide. I'm going to make sure I've got that christmas tree bromide solution is soluble anesthetic, blah blah blah. Okay. And now we're asked to write a balanced chemical reaction, balanced chemical equation. Okay, so let's start. So we have Business three oxide solid reacts with hydrochloric acid which we were told was in solution. And it's going to produce this meant try brown might that's a city plus H +20 So there's a skeleton equation. Let me give an L. There if I can, whoops. That's liquid. Doesn't show it very well, but it's liquid. And then to get this balanced, we're gonna put a six here to hear and the three here and I'll just go ahead and give those a quick highlights so you can see that those are Yeah, my um coefficients part C says CCC. While business three oxide is soluble. So the business three oxide is soluble in acidic solutions. But it is insoluble in basic solutions. That's a statement that we're getting given based on these processes. We need to characterize business caramel, characterized the B smith. Yeah, yeah. As metallic, a metal Lloyd or non metallic element. And this is going to be strongly metallic. It's a strong middle. Okay, d indeed, treating bismuth with flooring gas produces BF five, BIF five. So we're gonna use the electron configuration of bismuth to explain. It won't be too hard, Bismuth is in group 58 and its electron configuration is I'm just gonna go ahead and start with X. E. And then I'll start with my X. E. Um and then I'm gonna go with my six S two, four F 14, five D 10, six P three. So they're my outermost electrons. And what's going to happen when bismuth forms B I. Yeah, five. I better balance this right here. It's bothering me is one of my s electrons. I'm just gonna go ahead and put my s is over here or my last electrons over here. I'm going to promote one of my S electrons Into a 60 orbital. And when I get into this configuration that I have, I have five half filled orbital's and that will give me the tribunal by pyramidal Shape that we are used to seeing for five bonding sites by variants of electron densities. And last but not least, letter E. It is possible to form business Penta fluoride just like this. The pen to Hayley's of bismuth are not known to exist. They don't exist. Explain why that might form, explain why this might be true. And then we're also asked to relate this um to the fact that zen in can also react with chlorine but not with other highlights. Intelligence Uncle halogen is there and as you might expect, this is due to florins, high reactivity as exhibited by its it being the highest electro negative electro negativity of all elements. And that should be it.

Most off the alkali with metal have a larger or higher atomic size, a lower ionization and talebi on lower Electra. Negative. Hence they don't need to Valence Electron easily to form a dive ill. And could I in So they go from magnesium do Sorry, magnesium, not. They go from metal to metal to positive bless to electron which leads to formation off I nicked compounds. However, beryllium shows a cool and character in some off its compound. The atomic number off beryllium is for so atomic number off. Beryllium is four on the configuration off electron is one s two two it's too does it has two villains silicone in its US orbital which is closer to the nucleus. Due to this, forces off attraction between nucleus and valence electron are stronger. Hence the higher energy is required to remove these electrons from the outer orbital. Therefore, beryllium has a lower atomic size. But I have ah hire ionization intel a p For though the electoral negativity off beryllium is quite high. As you can see, the character six off beryllium is all opposite from traditional alkali metal. Because of higher electro negativity, it prefers to share its two villains electron with other atoms to form a coagulant born. Hence, it forms some corpulent born come bone. Such example can be berry limp chloride.

These were considering the main group elements that also considered are representative elements. So we often like to investigate their properties and the trends throughout periodic table, and so will jump straight into this podcast material where what we're looking at firstly is beryllium. So brilliant has a small size and a large electro negativity when we compare this to the other alkaline earth metals. So the election negativity off beryllium is so high that it will not readily give up electrons to non metals. Instead, beryllium will have a significant CA Vaillant character in its bonds as it prefers to share the Valence electrons rather than give them up in order to form ionic bonding types.


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