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Question 426 ptsSuppose you are a student at The Ohio State University: As you walk by the Molecular Biology building; you observe two world-famous molecular biolog...

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Question 426 ptsSuppose you are a student at The Ohio State University: As you walk by the Molecular Biology building; you observe two world-famous molecular biologists arguing: As you get = closer; you realize they are debating over whether or not Giant Pandas are closely related to other bear species. Explain to them how they might be able to use their molecular analysis expertise to establish such evolutionary relationships Specifially. identify for them the different molecular components the

Question 42 6 pts Suppose you are a student at The Ohio State University: As you walk by the Molecular Biology building; you observe two world-famous molecular biologists arguing: As you get = closer; you realize they are debating over whether or not Giant Pandas are closely related to other bear species. Explain to them how they might be able to use their molecular analysis expertise to establish such evolutionary relationships Specifially. identify for them the different molecular components they could , compare. Edit Vie" Insert Format Tools Table 12pt Paragraph



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This book depicts the diversity of life with an evolutionary tree (see, for example, figure 16.1 ). Some biologists, however, are beginning to show life's evolutionary history with a more weblike diagram that accounts for genes moving among multiple branches and does not assume a single common root. What are some arguments in favor of each approach?

Hey, guys. Discussing addresses the revolutionary analyze of living beings this analyze are carried out by compared the high solids and seconds jeans of different living beings. Based on this analysis, degrees of kinship between living beings that share common characteristics and considerable similar between their generically seconds are tracing make it possible to advance the presence of common assets inside service. If bases only all morphological data, they can result in erroneous analysis, since different groups may have similar physical characteristics do to being subject to similar selective pressures of overtime. In this way, it's only possible to obtain a real label analysis by Syquest the generic information, and you compare the nucleotides that make up the living beings. For example, to compare the d. N a analysis. It was possible to trace a greater proximity between humans and chimpanzees. Relationship with realized. That is for today in good studies

The explanation of the soldiers and is the object. If to living faces are compared, all the proteins would not show the same degree off divergence. Okay, although the two spaces divers during the course off evolution, they have evolved from a common ancestor, some off the protein involved in very important functions off their Selves, like replication on protein synthesis would have bean conserved in both the species. Now changes caused due toa mutations and DNA sequences that result in changes in very important proteins may lead toa laws off the function off such proteins. This would be determine intell to the organism. Onley changes in the proteins, which are actually benefits that organisms would be favor during the divergence. Therefore, the degree off divergence off all the proteins in two spaces will not be equal. So this is the complete explanation of the answer. Please go through this. Thank you.

This is a throwback to a few chapters ago and recall at the molecular clock technique says that if we have the DNA son ancestral gene, then there oclock sort of measures time in mutations, so there would be some degree of time that passes. And we would get mostly the ancestral gene. Ah, but with potentially a modification. So maybe one of them went to an aquatic environment. And some some mutations happen there that we've been official. The other one did up some other mutations. Okay, then time was on again. These red arrows air time, and we see, maybe this 1st 1 stays mostly the same. But then we get, uh, two more mutations in that the in this other branch here, so we're really doing is comparing DNA and seen where these mutations occur. So there's two things that we expect to see. One is we expect to see a lot of similar DNA who are identical. What are you better? Um, say many of those and then if it's just having started to be going to evolve in a separate species, were probably at this first stage, so we would expect to see just a few a mutations or differences. And so the evidence we would be looking at would be this, uh, genetic evidence success exactly what we're looking at with, um, the molecular clocks technique requires looking at DNA, but likely if they're developing a different species. These mutations are something observable, like some sort of FINA type. So there should be something that we could observe that may have led us to wanting to tested and a maybe one of them got stripes now are one seems to have thicker branches and the other does'nt. Um, so not only would we be looking for the DNA, but probably there's a trait that pairs with it.

Okay, So the question asks, comparisons of amino acid sequences can shed light on the evolutionary divergence of related species. If you were comparing to living species, would you expect all proteins to show the same degree of divergence? Why or why not? And just fire answer. So I'd like to draw to your attention, to consider the following. My first point is consider that all proteins do not have the same function there. Several different types of proteins within a cell and they do not all function at the same time. They don't have the same function. Some are more important than others. Which brings me to my second point. Some are more important than others. Essential proteins are those really important proteins. Um, these essential proteins tend to be more conserved because of how important they are. Such protein sequences, like cytochrome C, are used for, um, cell division and seldom division needs to occur in order for the cell, an organism as a whole to survive. And so we have essential proteins. And then we have these non essential proteins, which can change a little bit as time goes on, and there could be some variation within these non essential proteins because they're not as important as the essential proteins. So with that said, there in any environment, you will have some selective pressure. Some, like environmental sores or some selected trait that causes a protein to become more important or less important, where that trait continues on, and so that selective pressure can also leave two proteins not having the same function where they may be super similar proteins, but they won't function in exactly the same way. And finally, I'd like to draw your attention that there are always random mutations. Always, always, always thes are, as they say, random, and so they occur in places that are not alike, especially when comparing species that are related that share a common ancestor. And so, with all of that said, proteins that have different levels of importance will have different levels of conservation, and as a result, those conserved sequences won't change As time goes on. However, there are some proteins that are not essential and so they will change as time goes on. And it won't change at the same rate because there's that selective pressure that influences a species changing and diverging further apart from the common ancestor. So with all of that said, I give you the following to consider. Thank you


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