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MULTILE CHOICE Choode tht one alterative that beat completeaetatrmcnt1) What Ls biology? the scentifc study of life scientilikc study of ecosystemsB) the icentlfc s...

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MULTILE CHOICE Choode tht one alterative that beat completeaetatrmcnt1) What Ls biology? the scentifc study of life scientilikc study of ecosystemsB) the icentlfc study 0f DNA D) the scientific study of the environmentWhat ane the two main PIOcessts that ecusyetems depend upon? speciaton and cvolution B) nubientnodlng and encrgy Bow C) sunlight and photrynthesis D) decompocltion end nutrient negydingRelative prokanotk&lls eukaryolkc cell are Ually smallet und ampter mkkrundngap= 0 Lrgtr and

MULTILE CHOICE Choode tht one alterative that beat completea etatrmcnt 1) What Ls biology? the scentifc study of life scientilikc study of ecosystems B) the icentlfc study 0f DNA D) the scientific study of the environment What ane the two main PIOcessts that ecusyetems depend upon? speciaton and cvolution B) nubientnodlng and encrgy Bow C) sunlight and photrynthesis D) decompocltion end nutrient negyding Relative prokanotk&lls eukaryolkc cell are Ually smallet und ampter mkkrundngap= 0 Lrgtr and non complex D} buerrund equally axplex @nmali 4 Carbon lemcnt Blsal Di Chum An 41DEL+ Ind A} protons only ncutron ckrtrona ntdais nauubana EnYd pnn clcuung; proluratund nnntront Anatoai dutnal dune A) moleak bjdon compound DI isotope What naane Eter the following naation? gulactDUe + Llucor Hnn hydrolysis hydrogenation Elrolyeis dchydratun reacton Wnar nim€ givn lullowing " LLCnFn [eacticn? #Wulr Elucose + fructose hydmlyais glucngenesis denaturation dehydration retction Enxe Phospholipids monosaccharides B) protins Amutin acids Proteins Ane polkrner constructed fom A) amino acid monomen B) nudeotide C) hydmaarbon D) fatty add 11) Ifone strand ofa DNA double helix has the = the ocher strand? sequenae AGTACTG, what will be B A) GICATGA the sequenoe o TCATGAC C) GACGTCA D) AGTACTG V



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Match one of the following terms with each of the descriptions given. Terms: (1) sigma ( $\sigma$ ) factor; (2) $\operatorname{poly}(\mathrm{A})$ tail; (3) TATAAT; (4) exons; (5) TATAAAA; (6) RNA polymerase III; (7) intron; (8) RNA polymerase $\mathrm{II}$ (9) heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA); (10) snRNA; (11) RNA polymerase I; (12) TTGACA; (13) GGCCAATCT (CAAT box). (a) Intervening sequence found in many eukaryotic genes. (b) $A$ conserved nucleotide sequence (-30) in eukaryotic promoters involved in the initiation of transcription. (c) Small RNA molecules that are located in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, most as components of the spliceosome, that participate in the excision of introns from nuclear gene transcripts. (d) A sequence (-10) in the nontemplate strand of the promoters of $E$ coli that facilitates the localized unwinding of DNA when complexed with RNA polymerase. (e) The RNA polymerase in the nucleus that catalyzes the synthesis of all rRNAs except for the small $5 \mathrm{S}$ rRNA. (f) The subunit of prokaryotic RNA polymerase that is responsible for the initiation of transcription at promoters. (g) $\operatorname{An} E$. coli promoter sequence located 35 nucleotides upstream from the transcription-initiation site; it serves as a recognition site for the sigma factor. (h) The RNA polymerase in the nucleus that catalyzes the synthesis of the transfer RNA molecules and small nuclear RNAs. (i) A polyadenosine tract 20 to 200 nucleotides long that is added to the $3^{\prime}$ end of most eukaryotic messenger RNAs. (i) The RNA polymerase that transcribes nuclear genes that encode proteins. (k) $A$ conserved sequence in the nontemplate strand of eukaryotic promoters that is located about 80 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site. (1) Segments of a eukaryotic gene that correspond to the sequences in the final processed RNA transcript of the gene. (m) The population of primary transcripts in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

Okay, So what's going to happen? His his tone, medical transfer is in his stone. Do you settle? Aces will methylate. And do you settle eight that had a re chrome metin, respectively? So they're gonna escalate like their names? And he a set eight uh, tomorrow chroma 10.

For this question, we are looking at DNA transcription in the presence of different proteins, including the opt Immers of the nuclear zones. We also have the H1 protein, and we're looking at this special protein in this experiment called gal, for G p 16. So first we can take a role. Look at the role of D. N. A. And the optimizers and H. One that combined to it. So DNA, of course, is going to be that single string.

For this question. We're looking at DNA transcription and the role of certain proteins involved with it, including the nuclear. So um optimizers, We also have the protein H1. And during this experiment they're looking at a special protein called Gal for VP 16. So here we can start by taking a look at DNA transcription and the role of our customers and this H1 his stone protein. So of course DNA is going to be in that double stranded structure and you're going to have special regions associated with it. You're going to have a promoter region and you can also have certain repressor and other regions involved with this. The role of October's and the H1. Histone protein is to rabble up this double stranded DNA in order to condense it so it can fit in the nucleus. And you're going to have to kind of confirmations of the histone proteins. You have a methylated form where you have methyl groups attached to the DNA and the histone proteins and you have an assimilated form. And there you have a Seattle groups attached to your histone proteins. And those are going to affect the way that your DNA reps around those his stones. So in your methylated form, DNA is going to be closely wound to each of the histone proteins. And you're going to have very little space in between. In the assimilated form, it's going to be in a looser confirmation and you'll have much more space in between each of your his stones. And this is going to affect the way your genes can be read. So of course inside of that DNA we have those genes of interest. But in order to transcribe these genes we need preliminary races and other proteins able to activate and attach to those specific regions. So in the methylated form, you can imagine that the headstones that are close together. leave very little space for your preliminary races and other proteins to buy. So there is going to be very difficult to transcribe those jeans. Whereas in the assimilated form of your headstones there's plenty of space for your preliminary races to access as well as your other transcription factors and proteins. So you're set elated form is going to increase the rate of transcription. Or as your methylated form can decrease or even deactivate gene transcription. So here are the roles of the October's and H1 is to bind that protein and to down regulate or decrease the amount of proteins created from the genes. So knowing that we can take a guess at the role and function of this special protein, gal for BP 16. So since this protein is going to function and prevent the function and decreased transcription caused by the nucleus, oh mok tumors and your histone proteins. You can imagine that gal for VP 16 is going to probably bind to your his stones or to the DNA. Around where those headstones. Woodbine. And this is going to prevent your assimilated form from becoming methylated and closing that gene area and from down regulating gene transcription. So if it's going to bind to either the his stones or the DNA in either of these areas, it's going to increase the transcription and it's going to prevent it from being inhibited since it's also going to increase the rate of transcription. Since in the graph were given that the naked DNA, meaning just this DNA alone without any additional proteins has a rate of 100 and our DNA Plus this gal for VP 16 has a rate of 1000. This protein has a good chance of binding to this promoter region because the promoter region has a tendency to increase the rate at which the genes downstream are transcribed. So if this protein binds to this region here, it's going to increase the times the problem arises. Transcribe the genes and it's going to probably increase the affinity for the area for your different transcription factors and that's going to increase the overall rate that we see in the data provided. So overall the important pieces of information to get from this is that your october's and your histone proteins decrease the rate of transcription by binding it into these confirmations that are closed where the genes can be hidden and inaccessible to your preliminary races. The gal for VP 16 likely prevents that binding by those ah customers or H. One and leaves it in this open confirmation where your prelim erases and transcription factors can access it. It also likely has an increasing or stimulating effect, possibly by binding to the promoter or some other stimulating region that's going to increase the rate at which that gene area or region of the D. N. A. Is transcribed.

For this question. It's important to note how his stones function and how these can be sort of circumnavigated in order to increase the activity of DNA transcription. So here we have this special protein of gala VP 16 and we are told that this is going to bind the D. N. A. Itself and increase the rate at which it is transcribed. So if you imagine a DNA strand, this is going to consist of multiple portions, one of which will include say an enhancement region, which is going to increase the rate at which the DNA strand is transcribed by the RNA polymerase. So you can imagine that because the gallup VP 16 is going to increase the rate at which your D. N. A. Train Strand is transcribed. That perhaps this gala VP-16 is going to bind to the enhancement region and cause the up regulation of the genes in the sequence. From there, you have to propose why the his stones might be blocked because of this. So here we can go over the role of his stones. These are specialized proteins inside the nucleus of the cell that rely on rattling and twisting DNA around their own proteins. And this is going to help condense that DNA inside of the nucleus and keep it localized and un active. These nucleus homes can be close together and when they occur inside their methylated state or under other circumstances they can appear far apart or what we would call open and and a sad elated state. So the difference between these two is how tightly the DNA is bound to these structures and the amount of space between each of these histone proteins. When you have more space in between these histamines, there's more room for your preliminary races to fit in and to transcribe the genes inside of these open sequences. Whereas when they are close together and the jeans are very closed or they can even be hidden inside of the histone protein. During the rattling process. Your primary races are not going to be able to access it well and the transcription rate will decrease. So for this gala VP 16 protein, you can imagine that in order to prevent the his stones from having an effect, or the october's having an effect on the transcription rate. Perhaps they're going to prevent the binding of DNA to these histone proteins themselves. Or at least they're going to block the binding of the DNA molecules. Otherwise you could consider that perhaps they're going to prevent them from closing in together and they can increase the repulsive effects between the histone molecules so that they're not going to have any effect on the gene transcription rate of this protein. So here the important things to consider is that gala VP 16 may bind to an enhancement region inside the DNA strand and that's going to up regulate the amount of times the gene is transcribed by polyamorous is when it is found, it's possible that it could block the action of his stones by preventing DNA from raveling around them in that tight bound structure, or it could just prevent them from closing in as tightly as in their methylated form. Those are likely some of the best Hypothesis as to why this gala VP 16 is going to increase the regulation of jeans by increasing their transcription rate even in the presence of his stones and those nuclear so mop timmers.


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