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2 Describe how a psychrotroph is different from a psychrophile and_why that difference makes some psychrotrophs dangerous pathogens with respect to food storage_psy...

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2 Describe how a psychrotroph is different from a psychrophile and_why that difference makes some psychrotrophs dangerous pathogens with respect to food storage_psychrophile is a microbe that.psychrotroph is different because_The reason psychrotrophs can be dangerous pathogens that has to do with food storage is_

2 Describe how a psychrotroph is different from a psychrophile and_why that difference makes some psychrotrophs dangerous pathogens with respect to food storage_ psychrophile is a microbe that. psychrotroph is different because_ The reason psychrotrophs can be dangerous pathogens that has to do with food storage is_



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Describe the ways in which each of the following pathogens can disarm their host's immune system or manipulate it to their own advantage: a. Pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus b. Enveloped viruses

Hi. So this video is going over a problem 10 of biology concepts and investigations. 3rd edition in Chapter 34. This chapter is going over the immune system. Um And this is talking about bacteria. How do we become immune and antibiotic resistance? So when we get a bacterial infection along at the times they prescribe us antibiotics and these antibiotics are meant to kill bacteria in a certain way. And usually these antibiotics come and they say you know take twice a day Um for 10 days or something like that. Now how bacteria become resistant to antibiotics is. So if you have a population, well you have a population of bacteria And you hit it with antibiotics for five out of those 10 days and then you decide oh I'm feeling better I'm going to stop my antibiotics. What happens is these antibiotics kill off most of the bacterial population. But this one was a little bit stronger and they call them resistant populations. And now these resistant populations of bacteria usually need a higher dose antibiotic um for a longer period of time to actually die. Um so that's why you take it for 10 days to make sure that all of these bacteria die and not a single one is left. But if you stop early might leave those stronger bacteria lying around and then once you stop antibiotics now it has more space to grow. And so all of these bacteria are going to be very very strong. Right? So it it makes a lot of resistant bacteria or as it would have been nice for an easy for the antibiotics to kill that one bacteria that's a little bit resistant. Now you have whole population of resistant bacteria and this antibiotic is not going to cut it. Um It's learned from this antibiotic it knows how to um and that's how to not be affected by it. And so this is how you get populations of bacteria that are resistant. Um This is a really dangerous problem with tuberculosis right now. Um tuberculosis is people are not taking their antibiotics which tuberculosis needs a very high dose and long term antibiotics and if people don't take them as strictly as they should be then we are allowed we're killing off the susceptible bacteria tuberculosis and it allows the resistant ones to flourish. Um And so this is bad because now our treatment for tuberculosis can be going out of date. Um And that the whole new resistant population is what's popping up. So um antibiotic resistance is very dangerous and um this is why it's so important when you are given antibiotics too Take them on time. So if it's twice a day you should take it you know halfway through the day so every 12 hours um And you should take it for the full 10 days. So don't just stop because you feel better because you feel better because most of the bacteria died but not all of the bacteria died now. How do we become immune to specific bacterial species? So when you're infected with a bacterial species and here's your DNA in there you have this bacteria has certain proteins on its surface and it's usually proteins that are specific to that bacteria. There also might be things within the bacteria. I thought this can go for basically if you have a specific protein on the surface what's going to happen is your immune system cells. So your macrophages and dendritic cells they are going to gobble up this bacteria and break it down and send it to your lymph nodes and in your lymph nodes this is where your immune cells get trained to fight this bacteria. And so you have B cells and T cells that um you're basically training in p cells make these things called antibodies. And you've probably heard about antibodies in the context of vaccines and um previous infection stuff like that. So your antibodies they are specific for a certain protein where what's called antigen. And on the androgen there is an epic tope or an epitaph hope on an anti gin. So what happens is these antibodies are little proteins and they look something like this. They basically lock on that protein and like target or what's the word, label it for destruction. So these these cells can find them even easier and destroy them. It also keeps them from binding to our own cells so that they can't get in anymore. A lot of the ways that fire or viruses usually bind receptor on ourselves and then they get in ourselves that way and recap acc so um for example we can have a protein on the surface of our bacterial cell that looks like this and this whole protein or part of a protein would be an anti gin. But our antibodies that lock on right here and this is a very simplified drawing of an antibody very big. This these little parts that are specific those are called epitaphs. And so what happens is we have our B cells and our T cells of our immune system that make antibodies an antibody but then it also can make memory B cells and these can be turned on even faster when you see this bacteria again. So for example if you get strep throat caused by a certain bacteria um your body will make B cells and make antibodies. But in order for those b cells to be turned on, a lot of processes have to take place. And so it'll be like 10 days before you start making antibodies and think it's about 7 to 10 days. So it takes a while and you get sick and you feel symptoms. You get that sore throat but you also make memory B cells. So in a couple of weeks when you get exposed to strap again these memory B cells they can get turned on within hours to a day and so you don't have to wait that seven day period. These memory B cells can make more B cells and more memory B cells. And these will make antibodies and this will clear the bacteria before you even start to feel symptoms. So this is how vaccines work is that you expose it to expose your body to a certain epa Tope and your body makes B cells and memory B cells and antibodies against this episode. And so then when you see it again, your body already knows how to fight it. It's like, hey, I've seen this before, turns on a lot quicker. You get a lot faster and more robust immune response. And so then your body clears it before you even out symptoms. Um, hopefully that made sense and helped with their understanding of bacteria and the immune system.

What are some differences between bacteria and archaea? As I want to split these into two groups and we just write about each one. So first of all they each have cell walls. But the cell walls are different. So bacteria have pizza dough. Second cell loss and you will not find that in our care. Um An additional thing is in bacteria. The cell membrane will always be a lipid bile out in our case. Sometimes it's a biolab but may have what earlier or its membrane which you won't ever find in your bacteria. Also within the cell membrane. The bacteria have fatty acids in the cell membrane whereas archaea may contain white smell so fighting all in cell membranes. These are all possible differences and this is all about the wallets of membranes. Now if we go to the ribosomes they have very different reports no more structure. So they also differ in very presentable structure. They also differ in RNA fundraisers. Yeah. First the main differences.

Bacteria are single celled per carry out organisms. Unlike Eukaryotic organisms, they like a necklace. Instead, their DNA is clustered into a single chromosome at the center of their cell, as well as a numerous class minutes, which are essentially small rings of DNA. Genes that promote resistance to antibiotics are often located in a plasmid. Additionally, bacteria sometimes happen Phyllis, which is a hollow appendage that bacteria used for lateral gene transfer in other words, forgiving positives to other bacteria. So more of the populations has the gene necessary to survive. The cell wall in bacteria is sometimes surrounded by a capsule made of a sticky material. This capsule helps bacteria adhere to services on the host. It also makes it harder for if I go psychosis to occur from Bre, which are stiff. Fibres also promote sticking to a host. Finally, motile bacteria often have a flood Jelen, which is a long row kating appendage that promotes movement

In this problem we're considering to microbial organisms. So probably bacteria that have similar but different 16 S. RNA sequences. So what does that tell us about these organisms? Because there are an anti sequences are different. We can trust that these are not the same strain of organism. They're probably not even the same species of organism because mutations in our RNA are pretty rare. So this took some evolutionary time. Okay. What else can we tell by this bribe? Zone information. Can we tell about the motility of the bacteria or their pathogenesis? T whether they cause disease or about their shape? Like if their caucus which is like a round shape of bacteria. No our ribosome helps us make proteins but it definitely doesn't encode enough information for us to be able to make these guesses about the types of bacteria that they are would just arrived is almost similarity. The best will be able to do is say that they're definitely members of the same domain. So either the domain bacteria or the domain Arcadia. They could also be members of joe cain domain. You carry A, but you carry A. Doesn't have 16 S ribosomes. Um, So we know here that our answer is going to be D.


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