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1) Which species has London dispersion forces as the oly intermolecular force? A) KBr B) HI C) CHBOH D) CHBCH3 E) CH3F2) Which of the following choices has the comp...

Question

1) Which species has London dispersion forces as the oly intermolecular force? A) KBr B) HI C) CHBOH D) CHBCH3 E) CH3F2) Which of the following choices has the compounds correctly arranged in order Of increasing solubility in water? (least soluble to most soluble) A) CCI4 CHCI3 NaNO3 B) CHBOH CH4 < LiF C) CH4 NaNO3 < CHCI3 D) LiF NaNO3 CHCI3 E) CHBOH < Cl4 < CHCI3

1) Which species has London dispersion forces as the oly intermolecular force? A) KBr B) HI C) CHBOH D) CHBCH3 E) CH3F 2) Which of the following choices has the compounds correctly arranged in order Of increasing solubility in water? (least soluble to most soluble) A) CCI4 CHCI3 NaNO3 B) CHBOH CH4 < LiF C) CH4 NaNO3 < CHCI3 D) LiF NaNO3 CHCI3 E) CHBOH < Cl4 < CHCI3



Answers

Which of the following statements about intermolecular forces is(are) true?
a. London dispersion forces are the only type of intermolecular force that nonpolar molecules exhibit.
b. Molecules that have only London dispersion forces will always be gases at room temperature $\left(25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)$
c. The hydrogen-bonding forces in $\mathrm{NH}_{3}$ are stronger than those in $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ .
d. The molecules in $\mathrm{SO}_{2}(g)$ exhibit dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions.
e. $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{CH}_{3}$ has stronger London dispersion forces than
does $\mathrm{CH}_{4}$ .

So let's have a look at the forces present in a range of molecular compounds. To be able to determine the inter molecular forces we need to look ass. The structure of the molecule into molecular forces are going to be dependent upon the structure and the polarity. So if it's non pola, the forces acting between the molecules are going to be London Dispersion Forces, which will a brave EI Tia as o. D. If if the molecules pola, it'll either have die Poldark Poll forces, which will cool d d efs. It will have hydrogen bonds, which will call HB. I have a hard region bond within the molecule you have to have ah, hydrogen bonded toe. Other a flurry. A nachagyn Well, an oxygen. What that does is create an extra strong dye poll in the molecule side that the dispersion forces are stronger than normal and we call them hydrogen bonds. So to determine polarity, we need to draw the structure. That's our first. So let's look at some compounds the first time regard to look at is it for structure? Visit for ISAS follows. I'm not going to draw in the non bonding piers on floor in just sort of seemed prefer the molecule a little bit. However, this molecule is quite hola. It has a dark hole. It runs from the sulphur where you have the central positive on the Florence where you have the center of negative. So your dark hole is running in that direction. So since it is Paula and there is no hydrogen bonded toe, a flurry nitrogen oxygen, the forces present are going to be dark. Hold our forces. The next molecule, we're going to look at his carbon dioxide. This is the structure off carbon dark outside the central, positive and center of negative in carbon dioxide in the same price. Therefore, this makes this molecule non polar. There is no die poll, so the forces present will be London dispersion forces. The next molecule is ethanol ch three, ch two. How much? He's a structure with the no. If the novels of very polar molecule it has a center of negative somewhere around the oxygen and a central positive some way over the other side of the molecule. So it has a dark Paul running the carbon aimed through to the oxygen end. So this is polar However, since oxygen is bonded to ah hard region here, we're going to have extra strong diaper die Paul bonds between neighbouring ethanol molecules and therefore it's going tohave hydrogen bonding between molecules. The next molecule to consider it's hard to turn Flora Chief, This is the structure of hydrogen fluoride again central negative, their central positive here. So the diaper runs from the hard region to the Florida and this makes this molecule highly polar. And since the flooring is bonded to ah ha hydrogen that dark polls extra strong and therefore we have hydrogen bonding present, I make Okay, The next one is our Dane Tetra Florida. This is the structure of our Dane Tiptoe fluoride. There's a diaper running from the Rdn positive end of the rdn through to the Florence somewhere there. So we have a dark hole in that direction. This molecule is Pola. Therefore it will have Di Paolo di poll forces. The last molecule is in on floor Tetra, Florida. This is the structures in on Tetra Flora where we place the Florence is very important to you because it will affect the symmetry of the molecule. Given that there's four fluoride Zehren a square plane around the scene on, we're going to have the center of positive and central negative in the same place, so there will be no die. Poll on this molecule will be non polar hence will have London dispersion forces and it's simply due to its geometry.

So here we have to figure out which in a molecular forces are present. So first, let's just draw the Louis structure, which I always recommend when you're doing these type of problems because it makes it much easier. So here we have this sulphur with four floor flooring Adams, and it has to, uh, a lone pair of electrons up here. So therefore, we have a disciple die poll, and we also have, um, are electrons around the Florence. But I'm not going to draw those for sake of simplicity. Dappled, I pull and there's London then as well. But diable die pool is the major as it productive is it dominates. Um, the CO two as it should be familiar by now. This is what the 02 looks like. It's a linear, linear molecular geometry and it does not have a die poll. It does not have hydrogen bonding. It is Onley. London dispersion forces. So for this ch ch 20 h, or ethanol as it is more commonly called, we have our see him a correct ages. But we ever saw another sea with Tash too, And oh, monotone h with lone pairs here this is of course gonna have London dispersion forces. This is also gonna have die Poll As we have blown Aziz, lone pairs are going to create and I pulled. I pull moment and we also have hydrogen bonding because the O is taking most the charge from this age and that age is naked. Is a naked proton essentially and wants to bond to the other. Wants to cut 100 bomb of the other owes of other molecules in the solution So also hydrogen bonding And that is actually what is going to be the most. Have your bonding down mates of all these Internet their forces H f h is despondent F and F has its electrons and therefore has London, of course, since it's not an ionic compound and it also has hydrogen bonding because we see is the same thing as in life. Stage 20 we pull most of the charge from this it's to the f NF has Muller more than negative has a slightly negative charge and they said the slightly positive charge. But you don't have to get out of that um, the I c l five you might be saying, Well, Doesn't this violate the architectural? Because it has more. And, uh, more than eight pairs be more than electrons being shared. And yeah, it does. But this is because I'd I'm is a rather large molecule, is it? It's in the fifth row of the periodic table so it can hold all these extra electrons cause that's 2468 10 12 Right here. And this gives us a This, of course, then has London dispersion forces and it also has die pulled. I pull because it's not symmetrical. And it has these loan as long pair of hair. I pull a die pool. The last one we have the zine on Flora flooring fluoride. We have f here with f here since I already know what this looks like, We're going to move this off here and we actually have two more lone pairs now. So this then has a square plainer shape with a doctor he'd roll, um, electron geometry and a square Plainer molecular geometry as thes as the electrons will take up the axial positions on the top of the bottom. And these will stay in the plane efs And therefore this has London dispersion forces again and has die pulled. I pull, I pull, die, pull

For this question, you are given five different compounds and you were asked to identify the most important type of forces among the atoms or the molecules present in the solids of each of these substances. So, essentially, what are the most significant inter molecular forces creating the solid For the first one? We have a molecule with a whole bunch of carbon and floor. Eanes Florina is the most electoral negative of all of the elements. So we're definitely going to create some polar bonds. And we're in addition likely to have these long chain polymers be moderately polar also. So the most significant force would be disciple disciple. Next we have co two, we have two non metals. So this is not an ionic compound. It is a covalin compound. So we can draw the Lewis structure to determine whether or not it itself is polar. And the molecule ends up being linear with the two C double bonds. Oh, Bonds canceling their polarities. So the molecule is non polar and the most significant force is London dispersion. Next we have an AI, which is a metal with the non metal medals with non metals are ionic compounds so this would be Ionic. Next. We have a poly atomic ion with chloride with an anti on. So this is also Ionic. And last of all, we have magnesium chloride, which is a metal with a nonmetal, identifying it as an ionic compound with Ionic forces.

So here we're looking at the type of inter molecular forces on some different structures. So Fastly we have ch cl three. So this is Paul S. We have to import type all interactions. Next we have H20. So because of the O. H groups we can have hydrogen bonding. Next we have L I C. L. This is ironic because of the massive difference in election negativity. Next we have O B. R. Two, says Die paul di poll because and the different and electro negativity again, HbR here we have two major into molecular force being dipole dipole attraction because of the difference in actual negativity that gives us a polar bond. Lastly we have I. B. R. This is dispersion forces because of the very small difference in electro negativity.


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