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4r0 sphench In Iadc Ahaah YOU can ! tcd trom the ncropraph; U1 durtus per ~coccu: Indicale : tat ihe Oganemsthere are sevoral important differences Ihat drislingula...

Question

4r0 sphench In Iadc Ahaah YOU can ! tcd trom the ncropraph; U1 durtus per ~coccu: Indicale : tat ihe Oganemsthere are sevoral important differences Ihat drislingulah quch Doud Aneront groups ol microorganisms share somo srnilaritios.

4r0 sphench In Iadc Ahaah YOU can ! tcd trom the ncropraph; U1 durtus per ~coccu: Indicale : tat ihe Oganems there are sevoral important differences Ihat drislingulah quch Doud Aneront groups ol microorganisms share somo srnilaritios.



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Two scientists produce two different cladograms for the same groups of organisms. Explain how the differences are possible.

Things question a pure culture of an unknown bacterium with streaks onto plates of a variety of media. You notice that the colony morphology is strikingly different on plates of minimal media with glucose compared to that scene on tripped case soy agar plates. How can you explain these differences in colony morphology? So basically, our explanation lies in the fact that we're looking at two different media plates, so the 1st 1 will be the minimal media with glucose. And when we're looking at this plate, we see that there is going to be on Lee casing on that plate as a source of protein. However, on the trip case soy agar plate or the TSA plate, we noticed that there are going to be five distinct kinds of proteins for both the growth in dispersion of bacteria. So we see five distinct kinds of proteins that provide for the growth and dispersion of the bacteria. So this will basically be why we're going to see differences in the colony morphology

So what we want to do now is take a look at some various groups of protests and kind of maybe compare and contrast. And so what we mean by protest, these are eukaryotic, a eukaryotic organisms that are not animals. They're not plants and they're not fungi. It. Um The first pair that will look at our four am munificence and Radio Arians. So kind of what what's different about these two groups? The four am indifference secreta, calcium carbonate carbonate shell, which gives them structure externally. Whereas the Radio arians have kind of an internal skeleton. They have some glass like structures that they secrete internally to give them rigidity. Also, the radial arians think about the word radius. The radial arians have radial symmetry. That means symmetry around a radius, like it's just picture a circle or a sphere. Whereas the forum indifference um do not have symmetry. So those are those are the things that kind of distinguish them in blue. And then the things that kind of maybe uh that they have in common down here in green. We've got that they are rise Arians, which means that they're going to have long pseudo pods. Plus these are almost all units cellular plankton that they're just floating in the, in the oceans and water's so that's one group. Um Okay. Yeah. Okay. The next pair that will look at is the silly it's versus the Dina flag relates. And so how are they different? Well, the silly eights as you might expect from their name. They contain silly a little tiny hair like projections all around the outside of the cell. Picture of Paramecium. Most people have seen pictures of Paramecium. You have all these little hair like projections around the outside that beat back and forth and allow the paramecium to move. So the silly, it's have cilia, whereas the dino fragile, it's just have too long flow gela, Although the full gela may not be visible because they tend to be wrapped into a grooves on the surface of the cell. And another difference Sicily eights are hetero troughs. They consume other organisms. Were as the Dina fragile. It's our photosynthetic, producing their own nutrients. The affiliates tend to have two nuclei, whereas the Dina fragile, it's have one nucleus. So that's how they're different. How are these two groups? I like. These are both. What are called AL violates, which means that they have Alvey ally or tiny air sacs beneath the plasma membranes. So they would have that in common and they would have those those differences. That's the next group. The next pair that we'll look at is uh diatoms versus the brown allergy. These are in a group called stream into piles and the diatoms our eunice cellular. Whereas brown algae or multicellular brown algae kind of looks like a plant growing in the ocean. You might think of it as seaweed but it is not a plant is simple er type of cell structure. And um the diet homes also have silica within their cell walls that it's actually secreted to the outer part of the cell walls that gives the cell wall rigidity. And it's in two parts there's a top part and there's a bottom part and the top part fits over the bottom part so it's kind of like a Petri dish although they're not all perfectly round. Um The diatoms also are symmetrical maybe radial symmetry, maybe bilateral symmetry. Whereas the brown algae are are not necessarily symmetrical. So that's how they're different. How are they similar? Um The the protests in this group have to flow gela of unequal length on the cellular level. And the both diatoms and brandy are photosynthetic. So they they make their own nutrition through photosynthesis. So that's diatoms and brown algae. Excuse me. The last group that will look at is the slow plasmodium slime molds versus a cellular slime molds. The plasmodium slime molds. Strange organisms. Can you remind me of the old movie? The blob just pictured a massive cytoplasm that doesn't have cell walls, whereas a cellular slime mode does have single me Boyd cells surrounded by cell membrane. Um the plasmodium slime moulds have multiple deployed nuclei. So in this massive cytoplasm there are multiple nuclei distributed throughout and the and the and each nucleus has the deployed number of chromosomes or as in a cellular slime mold, you just have a single half Floyd nucleus within each cell. So there are different. Um one thing they have in common is that they both in reproduction. Both involves fruiting structures In these two types of organisms. So that's a look at several types of protest. Remember protests is not an official um classification. It's just a general term that we that describes you carry outs that are not animals, not plants and not fun guy. So I don't want to go back through all this again, but I will re scroll through the white board here just so you can review quickly because I know this was this was fast. So first we looked at for a munificent foraminifera rinse and radio Arians and you can see some of the differences and similarities with those. Then we looked at silly it's and dina flatulence and we looked at diatoms versus brown algae and finally the plasmodium slime molds into cellular slime molds. Yeah, I hope you're having a great day. Bye bye.

All right. So this question is asking us in what ways are all species alike biochemically. So all organisms need to have some way of breaking down food. So they do they do cell respiration. Okay, all organisms are gonna have proteins. All organisms are going to use carbohydrates. All organisms are going to have lipids. All organisms have nucleic acids, specifically DNA. All right. There's lots of organisms that need to perform the photosynthesis reaction so that we can harness the energy from the sun. Okay, all these similarities suggest we have a common ancestor that we are related to one another because we need to do a lot of the same things. However, the extent to which these reactions are performed, or even the type and amount of these different molecules can definitely change. All right. The proteins in mind muscles are not the same as the proteins and the muscles of a shark, for instance, or the carbohydrates utilized by one organism could be completely different than another organism. One could be only eating plants, and another one could mostly be eating fruits, for instance. So, while the basic building blocks are there for all organisms, this also creates the opportunity for diversity

So what? Animal is the most altruistic and we think about all tourism in the steak. But we use normally think I was just doing things at the kindness of our heart. All of those humanized concept when we have to be careful to enter more fives on that terrible fires. But when we think about this now, I said, What do we think about food? Do we think about what do you think about? I doubt many people think about humans when it comes to peak after us. And although we are social creatures and we do tend to work together. But that cake is taken by our social insects. Now you're somebody six all some deer creatures and out really form large groups like your spiders that but we just think of social insects like out. The bigs have, like bees, awas things that form this. They're the hitting of altruism or even our hands. So we call on the term you social just for those creatures, and to be used social, you have to have certain characteristics like you need to overlap adult generations, and this allows you to better take care of all spring and protect your home. And although this definition has changed some overtime, we basically see that we see the overlapping of adult generations. Now Leon's inside that you see brood care cooperative brute here. So the colony is stuff tastes Kara visual again. This is when we start getting things that separate us from, like a 1,000,000 types so attractive because that doesn't too often and you have division of labor. And only this division of labour is within no reproductive. Every bit of groups. Now we want to know was the best reason for the evolution of you've sociology. Well, like anything in science, things are designed to be intelligent, like they don't just happen because it's that this design is smart. They have, and they have in response to pressures. Sometimes it's not, especially between my evolution, sometimes not the best way to do it. But it is usually the most manageable way to do it, and the end discussed above you. So challenging probably happen. The simpler method, the best way I would explain it because he does ask according to eat. So here's a subject announcer at that point, but in my opinion, the reason why you so shall it e evolved in the way it did was due to ecological pressures where those pressures were, do the things they want to eat it, eating something going, teach you things you want e harsh environments like you need a large group toe form toe to form the harvest. So all these ecological pressures would have made it necessary to come together to work as a group, especially when coupled will continuing your offspring So all spring have a high mortality rate on his own, so they just put die. This numbers will be this definitely exacerbated in conditions. Where is low Food is a lot of pressures. So if you can keep the group together to help take care of the law, spring together, help for your form and divide the labor you sociology makes six. And this is why this wouldn't happen in groups where you don't eat this social type environment


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