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N li 2 point mutation ! caused by J substitution ! point mutton Caused 1 Insenlon?...

Question

N li 2 point mutation ! caused by J substitution ! point mutton Caused 1 Insenlon?

N li 2 point mutation ! caused by J substitution ! point mutton Caused 1 Insenlon?



Answers

(F) NO CHANGE (G) was being caused by (H) had been causing by (J) was the result of

This question grammar question is about development. So, um, we're asked to find, um we're going to use for adverbs that the question gives us and we're supposed to choose one, and we basically, in order to choose the correct one from the answer choices, uh, we have to look at the surrounding context and not just read the underlying portion. Read the entire, uh, paragraph. What makes sense logically. So the writer is saying that thorough is American is distinctly American effects. And so the context or meaning, Okay, Henry David Thoreau is American. And the answer choice that, um this is an adverb that correctly expresses this Contacts with the answer choice G. If you look at the other answer choices, um, f h n j do not reflect the writers intended, meaning that thorough is distinctly American. So we're going to go with this as a correct answer

What happens when you mutate? E I f too. Okay. What is e? I have to e i f stands for eukaryotic initiation factor. Okay, so it is an initiation factor that is found in Eukaryotic organisms. What does it initiate? It initiates. Translation. So here the keys. Aire not drawn in this committee, they're not written out. But we have the initiation factor too. Right there. The initiation factor to binds to G t p gtp, um is an energy carrier molecule like 80 p, but with ah g instead of eight. Ah, the Iaw. To binds to GDP, it binds to a host of other initiation factors and it binds to the small sub unit off the ribosomes. Remember, the ribosomes is the machinery that carries out the translation of are in a two protein. So and that machinery has two sub units, a small sub unit and a big sub unit. So this is part of the rival's home here. So the initiation factor through binds the GDP. Ah, host of other initiation factors and to the small rival symbol. Sub unit wants that Ah, once that complex is in place. M r N a and T are in a joined the party to then give you this complex right here. So in this complex right here, we have the small. So let me switch colors here since we're at a new stage. So we still have the small sub unit here. The initiation factor to hear that we are in a and the GDP wants. All of this is in place. The big right. So this is the other arrival. So most of unit down here. Okay, this guy now joins the party. And when the big rapper's almost up unit comes there, you get V, uh, harnessing off that third phosphate from GDP so that third phosphate gets broken off. So this is where the energy is harnessed in this entire operation. And once that big rifle several sub unit finds I have to the initiation factor too, along with all of the other initiation factors. Engine, they go away. They have done their job. Their entire job was to bring the TR in a the Marin A and the two rival symbol sub Q knits together. Okay, so this is the overall process. So a mutation in the eye of two ah would be detrimental if it prevented any of these interactions. Okay, so now let's look at our answer choices. Choice A. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from binding to Rene that would absolutely stop translation. If you can't bind to are in a there's no translation with our navy. Arnie is what is being translated. So that is not our correct choice, because so again, read the question carefully. We are looking for the one that would not be affected so binding two are in a would be affected, so that's not what we're looking for. Choice be. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from being force formulated. Let's look back at our schematic here. Is there a forceful relation off the high F two at any point in here? No. The only place that phosphate is involved is when that third phosphate is cleaved from GTP, resulting in GDP plus phosphate. So initiation factor is not first poorly, so Choice B is the one that would not be affected because that doesn't happen, so it looks like choice bees are correct. Answer. Let's look at the others to make sure that they wouldn't be affected. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from binding to GDP. That would absolutely effect translation. Because GPS will provide the energy without the energy, you can't jump start the process. Choice D. The mutation prevents the initiation factor from biting to the small rival SOMO sub units. Ah, and that is also correct because that's, uh or that is also absolutely needed. So it's if that is affected, this can't happen, which means it's not the correct choice, either. So Choice B is the only thing that talks about an aspect that would not be affected if the initiation factor to was mutated.

Mutations in which of these tumor suppressor genes causes retinoblastoma. Is it p 21 the wrasse proteins R B or T G F B beta. So we have transforming growth factor beta. So this so this one's easy. This one can. It stops for cell cycle actually want. And it helps decide if we're going to go forward with cell division or not. So you can see why this would be a tumor suppressor. We have P 21 which is associated with again cell cycle arrest. If DNA damage is detected so again, you can see why this would be an important tumor suppressor. The rise jeans. These aren't tumor suppressors, Visa proto on co jeans. And these are the type of GPS used in cell signaling. But these aren't tumor suppressors, and then we have our B, which stands for retinoblastoma protein. So we also maybe immediately obvious at this point, it is, indeed, see, retinoblastoma protein is linked to retinoblastoma, and it is a tumor suppressor. That again, was this cell cycle arrest

So this question wants us to explain synonymous, non synonymous and nonsense mutations as well as to explain their potential effects on protein. And all of these terms are terms describing mutations in D n A. Which encode amino acids. Um, so they refer to mutations in DNA that will be transcribed and then eventually translated. Um, so synonymous. Mutation is a mutation in the DNA sequence that changes the nucleotide base pair but does not change the amino acid encoded, um, an example could be a transition. Um uh, a condition at nucleotide position six in the, um, sequins. I've provided So a transition at the high position six changes sequence from T G to T G A. And in turn, this changes Thea Marin A, um from encoding A C c to a See you, Um, and the ah, these both of these code owns A, C, C and A C. You are synonymous, so the translation is the same, and both will still encode 3 18 Um, And because this is the same amino acid, it will have no, uh, it'll have no effect on the protein eso. A non synonymous mutation is a mutation in the DNA sequence that changes the nucleotide in the DNA and the amino acid encoded. An example is a trans version at nucleotide before, in the sequence I have provided, so it would change the D. N. A sequence from T G to G G G. And this change is the complimentary Amarna coat on from a C C two C C C, which translates to a new amino acid specifically changing from three inning two pro lean. Um, the effect of a non synonymous mutation can vary depending on what amino acid it changes to, um, if it can drastically change the amino acid interactions. For example, if a polar amino acid is replaced by non polar amino acid, and this can subsequently affect a protein, secondary or tertiary structure, destroying protein function and hindering it. But if the if the um non synonymous mutation results in a change from, say, one polar amino acid to another polar amino acid protein function might not be as affected, but in general, non synonymous mutations effect protein structure and function. Um, and finally, a nonsense mutation is a mutation, Um, in the d n a. The changes both the nucleotide and the amino acid encoded, specifically changing a sense code on to a stop coat on. Um, an example of this could be a trans version at nucleotide nine. In the sequence I have provided. So say the trans version was converting the sequence from 80 a to a t t. This in turn, changes the complementary m r in a, um, code on from you a You to you A which changes the translation from tyrosine to a stop code on. And what results from this is that our protein will now be truncated. Um, due to this premature stop code on, um, and often truncated proteins resulting from nonsense mutations are non functional. Um, so nonsense mutations especially, tend to be Della tear ius to an organism.


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