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Hiphcoz Hiphcoz-Hght Ambent Nollacor Amblentcoz12025 30 35 40 Leaf Temperature ( C)45Figure 3b. Photosynthetic rates taken at different leaf temperatures on the sam...

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Hiphcoz Hiphcoz-Hght Ambent Nollacor Amblentcoz12025 30 35 40 Leaf Temperature ( C)45Figure 3b. Photosynthetic rates taken at different leaf temperatures on the same individuals mentioned Flgure 3a grown under the same four treatments: High CO2, Ambient Temp (blue circles); High CO2, High Temp (green rectangles); Ambient Co2 and ambient temp (orange circles) and High temp; ambient CO2 (brown rectangles}:Question Based on the data shown in both Figures 3a and 30,under which treatmentfs) would the

Hiphcoz Hiphcoz-Hght Ambent Nollacor Amblentcoz 1 20 25 30 35 40 Leaf Temperature ( C) 45 Figure 3b. Photosynthetic rates taken at different leaf temperatures on the same individuals mentioned Flgure 3a grown under the same four treatments: High CO2, Ambient Temp (blue circles); High CO2, High Temp (green rectangles); Ambient Co2 and ambient temp (orange circles) and High temp; ambient CO2 (brown rectangles}: Question Based on the data shown in both Figures 3a and 30,under which treatmentfs) would the leaf water use efficiency (Ng be the highest when the leaf temperature at 4OC? Please explain: (10 points) Question Would rising temperatures rising atmCO2 have greater impact on stomatal conductance (shown in Figure 3a) in this species, or do they both have equal impacts? Why? (10 points) Question 10) Based on data shown in both Figure 3a and 30, what conclusions can you make respect to the Impact of climate change on the growth of this species? (10 points)



Answers

Forest growth Temperature and precipitation have a significant effect on plant life. If either the average annual temperature or the amount of precipitation is 100 low, trees and forests cannot grow. Instead, only grasslands and deserts will exist. The relationship between average annual temperature $T$ (in "F) and average annual precipitation $P$ (in inches) is a linear inequality. In order for forests to grow in a region, $T$ and $P$ must satisfy the inequality $29 T-39 P<450,$ where $33 \leq T \leq 80$ and $13 \leq P \leq 45$ A. Determine whether forests can grow in Winnipeg, where $T=37^{\circ} \mathrm{F}$ and $P=21.2$ in. B. Graph the inequality, with $T$ on the horizontal axis and $P$ on the vertical axis, in the viewing rectangle $[33,80,5]$ by $[0,50,5]$ C. Identify the region on the graph that represents where forests can grow.

Okay, Someone 12 is a long one. That's was jump into it. We'll start with part A. And he were given the equation for the number of leaves, like a minimum number of leaves that a tree would have is being equivalent to, uh, to pry times d squared, even the diameter of the tree and the surface area of the leaf. So that's the length and width of the league's. This is the first service area of be a more complicated equation for finding this. Did it involve the full area of the leaf? But this you need They just skip over some of that and just give us the punch line here. So that's why I use and the diameter of tree. Okay, so then we want to find the equation. Ah, for the energy exchange in and with the transpiration rate relationship using D, l and W. And so first we need to add some data. And so it would be great to know, uh, the energy being absorbed, right? So I feel it e v the energy per leaf free energy for relief. But we also need to know Ah, company carbon atoms are fixed. Um bye by the amount of energy, right? This isn't real. Carbon atoms sticks. And we're told we're told sort of in the very beginning that we get 200 funded water molecules really spread carbon. So I'm just gonna hours that at 300 because, um, take it, do this twice and get a range right. Could cut good at the 200 of them at the 400 give yourself a range. So we have 300 water molecules, her carbon for our ah, transpiration rate. Right. So that's her transporation. Okay. And then the relationship, we can get them. We won't want the number of Lee years, and that was given to us as the two ply d squared times. L w okay. And multiply that by the amount of energy per leaf. Right? So it's gonna give us our total sort of intake of energy. Okay. And then that should be roughly equal to our 300. You want a molecule? A superior carbon multiplied multiplied by ex Multiply that by our Carmen. The amount of carbon molecules that are fixed right now give us sort of how much transpiration has occurred in relationship to our free energy. Okay, then we move along here, go to part B and part B. This little story about diversity, Okay. And so what's happening here is, um, on the globe, we have our equator and some further away Mont iTunes and latitudes, right. So closer to the north or South Pole. And this is saying that the equator has a greater diversity. Then in some, these systems, uh, that air cool there. Okay. And in one of the explanations for this is the energy equivalent models. It's the energy equivalent model up. Okay, What does the energy of Cleveland's models say? Well, that says that as free energy increases so as our free energy increases at the population also increases, okay, But then, as as our populations increase will, then our mutations also increase. Okay? And they're saying that evidence evidence for this model are correlated at the family level. The adversity of Eve apple transpiration. So evacuate transporation if we have ah, so the ground here and we have atmospheric water, right? So there's some sort of water in the atmosphere. Some of that water is just gonna come from evaporating off the grounds. That's our evaporation and some of it is going to come from transporation, okay, from the plants and those two things together make up our atmospheric water. And so this process of both transpiration plus evaporation is tthe eee vap o transpiration. Right? So it's not really the most clever name he'd ever heard you the least. It makes it easy to remember. OK, so that's our You've got both transporation. It's the idea of being that if you're at the equator, right for the equator, your evaporation should stay roughly the same, uh, off of the ground. And so the variance you see across the globe but at the same latitude variance in region is going to be then due to transporation by the plants. And so the idea then is that we can use this Eve Apple transpiration too, to find a correlation at family level diversity. Okay. And so So. Part B wants us to explain, uh, this relationship between free energy exchange and latitude, right? And so so the idea here than being that this process of this free energy right being increased at the equator because there is a lot more, uh, like sun energy happening at the equator right. So you get this increase happening at the equator that you don't see as much of intimate ease further away latitudes. Okay? And then So because we have this energy exchange at the increasing the energy of the equator, we get the increase in populations. And you also see Seon rainforest areas, uh, larger sort of populations, right? And then, by following the model, this increase in population leads to the increase in mutation. Okay? And that increase in mutation, then this sort of the basis of of creating the diversity that we see at the equator, right, So it's sort of cyclical here. Um, So the increase in energy gives us this increasing mutation specifically at the equator, okay. And then really move on to part See, which is giving us some information on specific areas. Right. So they are at the same sort of latitude in all area, right? So the getting the same amount of of energy here, uh, but we're given is we have an Asian ecosystem, and at the family level, it had 67 families. Right? Because this is specifically about family level variation. Okay. And then we have in North American Ecosystem and this one had 46 families in it for diversity. Okay, And then we're also given their you've apple tree inspiration, right? And in the Grapple Transporation for North America was 850 plus or minus 200. And for e Asian one, uh, we have 730 plus or minus 1 60 The first thing to note is that they're actually you take the merging of air into the county overlap. Okay, Um, but but their margin of heirs are roughly similar. And so we see here, then, is that this Asian population had larger family diversity and a smaller ive apple transpiration. Okay. And the North American one had a smaller, smaller family diversity in a larger IV apple transpiration. So this told us that, you know, part be suggested, uh, that these things are correlated and it's possible that they are correlated negatively. Right? So this would suggest that a greater family diversity actually leads to a smaller You've apple transpiration quantity eso In a way, this really does not support the idea that ah, larger family diversity would increase your IV apple transporation

All rights from 41 is about how a reduced didn't take carbon dioxide will affect photosynthesis. And of course, our intake a carbon dioxide and sort of ruled by this carbon cycle right? Carbon cycle does produces sugar and it also then sends the ADP and N a D p over to our light, too dependent portion of photosynthesis to have a chloroplast here and file accords look right and which will eventually send theeighty p and in a DPH back over. So if we have reduced carbon dioxide, they were going to have a reduced quantity of 80 p and an ADP, which means we have a reduced quantity of the A T p and any pH resulting in sort of less shit. Right? So this whole process of photosynthesis is actually slowed down due to the inadequate amount of carbon dioxide. Okay, so the letter that responds to this idea is going to be letter choice D

Okay, so this problem 1 10 has a lot of parts to it. So this is a longer video. But there, with and impart A gives us this. This sort of like very black square and says, Well, this is this is our our photo synthesis. Okay? And then it asks us. Well, how do you know the rates of, uh, respiration? Uh, compare with this and the rates of growth. Okay, so it's a respiration. Respiration, uh, rate should be less than the rate of photosynthesis, right. So that's gonna be our respiration. And the thing is, respiration. Some of it goes towards metabolism than another portion. It portion of the respiration goes to growth. And these the point of this is not to have the precise portions exactly crashes. That's going very depending on on some extra factors which you'll see in later parts were just sort of knowing how they're nested. Right? So this was our A and then we can kind of move on, then. To part B here can be gives us this nice graph on how these respiration rates vary the temperature it. So there's okay, So we're in a forest whose typical temperature is 25 okay? And so? So that puts us sort of in this portion of the graph. This is where we're at. And then it says, Well, the temperatures increased has increased 3 to 5 degrees. That's what moves us to this next data points. So that's where our focus is. Okay, I'm just gonna get rid of those lines, toe. So don't, uh, sort of put too much on that graphic. Hard to read. And look what it asks us is, Well, what would you expect to happen in that? Increase the temperature? Well, if we look at what happens between those data points, we see that that the respiration increases and the photo synthesis rate decreases. So maybe that's what I would expect to happen if the temperature goes up by five degrees it so that's sort of the what B is getting on. Okay, but then it goes on to tell us. Well, it turns out that that when the temperature increases s instead of the photosynthesis decreasing and respiration increasing, you see that this whole, this whole arc, that sort of peaks peaks above our ideal temperature will move to the right, and so instead and would peak above our new our new temperature. Right. However, the respiration rate does not do the same thing. So the respiration rate is just kind of stay where it is. Increased temperature. This this is called acclamation. Cancel part C wants us to pose a couple of questions. Um, and there's no right. Answer them to this. This is sort of just a, uh, just thinking scientifically and and so if if then the photosynthesis raid. So if our photo synthesis rate is able to stay at it, sort of, max. But the peak with the respiration rate has increased from from where it was before. The difference. The difference between the photosynthesis rate and the respiration rate. It is now higher, faint. So that means this difference between our Max up here and with those of this rate is higher than it was here. Okay. And so that means we're aspiring more so why, I would ask, why doesn't the plant dry out? Okay? Because we lose water during respiration. So then the question is, is it, uh, an environmental or regional thing? Right. So we're talking about a decision's forest, which which has enough water just staying situates trees. Uh, so is it a regional thing? Does this occur in other areas? The desert, uh, or or is there an adaptation that's happening? Is that's tomato? Doing something is the evolutionary factor. So is there an ad apt patients? Um, sort. So those would sort of be my questions. And like I said, there's not a right answer to that one. Okay, So this part c East or cruise along here, in part to you, we have another little graft to look at on. This one gives us some data for response rate to photosynthesis and respiration due to an initial change of temperature on the short term. And then it asks us. Okay, so there is asking us to sort of drop in this box here with the rest of that graft might be on. Just blow it up for to make the drying easier and clearer. Okay. And so we see that they got a increase in temperature, okay? And initially, the photo synthesis rate up. It was stimulated the same way that maybe it stimulates when there's sunshine. Slight increase in temperature. But over time Ah, here It's a lead decreased rate and anything that the respiration respiration initially goes up and eventually decreases. And so there's this little area here in the center where where are respiration rate is higher than our put a synthesis rate. And that's what happens when you call on the previous slide where we had that to decrease and form the synthesis and that increase in respiration. But they sort of find so the they do this temperature acclamation, right? So they find a new sort of state, and you call from a previous life Blessed state occurs, right. The photosynthesis is able to get back to its optimal sort of peek dress. That would be kind of where it started. But the respiration, uh, should then now would be a little bit higher than it was before. Okay? And so we're gonna see is is this new new service stability? And if we assume then that the temperature, uh, doesn't change again that that are photosynthesis will get back to its appropriate peak. Okay. And then that the u really respiration, as the difference between these two should be shorter. Then they were before. Okay, so we want we want this gap to be smaller than that one. Okay. And then as we move along here, we we analyzed the long term effect of rate of respiration that excuse the rate of photosynthesis. Right. So this is saying What if What if this didn't happen? What if, instead? Okay. We had it where we had a new box instead of them switching back. We see if the ratings for the synthesis is now below the rate of respiration, then what happens? Okay, so in this case, if you recall our photo synthesis, right, Um, this was too to bring in. So, for the process of photosynthesis is, it's too sort of bringing light energy and produce our our sugars. Okay. And? And respiration is this gas exchange that brings in our carbon dioxide and exchanges it for oxygen. Okay, but the respiration needs energy. It needs this energy provided by photosynthesis. Okay, so we have a respiration happening at a high rate than our photosynthesis. Eventually, we're not going to be able to re spire anymore, okay? And so? So that's sort of that was sort of the last portion hair, part E. So

Students today, we're going to be answering this question and regard questions in regards to chopped on biology and the tree of life and based on descriptions, are bringing up about how researchers hypothesized the leaf mimic tree by the beef trifle. Leo. Lock to how provides protection for itself, um, from the plant, any animals or your whore before So for the results of the study, they studied 45 individual fines. Yeah, are showing and the following graph that you'll see on in your book. And they brought up how the light conditions were very similar in all cases and how, um, the researchers compared the level of the belief damage by the core before re index or your plant eaters, Um, and like situation where defines were climbing, um, leave on leafy host trees or how the fines were creeping on the ground with no support, how the fines were climbing on, um, the bare tree barks and how they used the P value to determine if the difference are significant or not. So, based off of that, um, the two questions that they ask of us is what conclusion could we make about the leaflet? McCree And also, what might researchers have to do to further explore the role of leave? McCree? So let's answer the first question. So for the first question, we can say that there is significantly less leaf damage and the fines on leafy tree host all the tree holes compared to um, compared to the in fines creeping on the ground or finds on their tree trunks. And how this result you forgot a period. I'm sorry. Okay. And how would this results, um, suggest that growing among other leaves protect the fines from predator predation by your plant eaters? So since that's the conclusion I was drawn, um, they also asked, um what do we think that the researchers might have to do to further their, um, to further explore more about the role of leaf gimmickry? Um, that's up there in the air where you guys can suggest what they might have to do. Um, because that's solely on you guys where I'll bring up like my pain. Just looking at it. I basically brought saying that they could change up the light condition and try to have, like, new set, have another set of trees. Um, just have another self of, you know, another set of like your bare tree, your bare tree trunks. Um, your your leafy holds trees, and your, um, defines our creeping on the ground. But change up the light conditions where for this set, let's say the light conditions, how they might be a little bit more intense or light conditions might be less, and we can see how that might change up a little bit, just to see if, since they brought like with the light and how light kind of comes off as a little bit more as that independent, valuable. That's what it sounds like, so or the control. So if we change it like the light, setting it and have another set of other another set of the items were the fires will be climbing or creeping on. We probably might get a different result than what we see up there. I don't know. That's my opinion. Whatever your opinion is, you can add, you can add that, and it's like that's just a suggestion. I'm not saying that could be the answer. I probably might be overlooking something, but Anyhoo, um, I hope you found this very helpful and informational. Please, please feel free to look at any other videos that will answer your questions regarding to your chapter or the chapters that you might be engaged in. Okay, Bye.


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