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(Analytical questions from Molecular Biology Labs) [Each question carries 10.0 points; 10x 10.0 = 100.0 points] [Please answer all questions in the blank sheets pro...

Question

(Analytical questions from Molecular Biology Labs) [Each question carries 10.0 points; 10x 10.0 = 100.0 points] [Please answer all questions in the blank sheets provided]: Answer the following from the concepts used in Labs: 1) Whatare different nucleic acid extraction methods available commercially via kits What are the major steps in nucleic acid extraction procedure? What is the role of lysis buffer in nucleic acid extraction? (10.0 points)

(Analytical questions from Molecular Biology Labs) [Each question carries 10.0 points; 10x 10.0 = 100.0 points] [Please answer all questions in the blank sheets provided]: Answer the following from the concepts used in Labs: 1) Whatare different nucleic acid extraction methods available commercially via kits What are the major steps in nucleic acid extraction procedure? What is the role of lysis buffer in nucleic acid extraction? (10.0 points)



Answers

You are working in a biotechnology lab and are analyzing DNA. You obtain a sample of a short dodecamer of DNA that contains 12 base pairs. (a) What must the ratio of adenine to thymine be in your sample? (b) What must the ratio of cytosine to guanine be in your sample? (c) Assume the counterions present in your DNA solution are sodium ions. How many sodium ions must there be per dodecamer? Assume the $5^{\prime}$ end phosphates each bear $a-1$ charge.

Okay, so we are going to discuss, um, genetic recombination or crossing over, which is something that we're all familiar with and have discussed before. Even if we did know, that's what we're talking about. Like if you've ever had a friend or a family member that you were wondering, like, why are they so tall or where their curly hair come from? Neither their parents of that trade on this basically genetic recombination where, um, genes are ah ah, interchanging to create fino types that aren't expressed on either parent or, you know, these traits that are expressed in either parents. That's what we're gonna discuss today. So basically, here I have, um we've got the, ah, mother and the father chromosomes. They're both the same chromosome. Just ones from other ones from the father. We have 23 from other twin through from her father. Uh, and this is how they look before our genes needed ourselves. New divide. When our cells go through, my toast is thes replicate themselves. Exact. And then they split exactly between the cells and then the daughter cells exactly like the parents. So, um, but my office is a little different because we're creating jammies and we want these gammy. It's not look exactly like us because that's the only kind of create genetic variation and how our species survives. All species survived. Um, so that's why everybody doesn't look exactly like a pun in square of their two parents with, you know, the dominant traits. One parent in the dominant traits of the other parent. We have sort of his variations that are unexpected. So, um, here I'm showing with these stats, we have jeans, A, B, C and D on. Then they're roughly, I mean, in actual genes. It would be in the exact same place. I try to put them roughly in the exact it's in place. But even though these air from the mother and these air from the father, the gene should be the exact same place for both. Um, they're just different genes for both. So on the father, you know, he might be okay. You know, I have whatever green eyes and the blue eyes or whatever the different rates are, they're they're the same, huh thing. Few noted that there are gene that they're showing, but it's different given expressions of each Ah, so here. I'm showing in pro phase one of my Oh, sis, we have this interaction between the mother and the father chromosomes. And these air sister committed Sze connected a kinetic or, um for bulls. Uh, and and one sister primitivism comes on, and then the two together are chromosome because of showing the exact same jeans. And over here So these air crossing over each other just as the word seems, uh would make you think it does s so they're crossing over a disc, asthma, And then there's an exchange of genetic material. And then you're creating these separate individual chromosomes, which then later are pulled away part in their each given their own cell, which was the gammy. Um, so you know, if this is your so you could, you know, pass on to your offspring Either this gene, this stream, this gene or this cheap, not two of them. Not all four of them, just one of them. So you're adding this variation here, And just to show you that, you know, there's different ways that this can happen appear it's crossing over the top. You have this case at the top, and then you have these four different genes here, which are different than these. Um, so there's all sorts of different options here for how this works. Now, for a question, um, assume you're mapping genes A, B, C and D and Joseph a lot. You know that these jeans are linked on the same chromosome, and you determine the recombination frequencies between each pair of jeans to be as fellows, a B 8% a C 8 28% 80 25% B C 20% and beady. 33% describe you. Determine the recombination frequencies for each pair of jeans and drop crumbs on map based on your data. So we'll just, uh, cover a section A of this question. Um, how you determine the recombination frequency. So basically, like, say that events one and B is 8%. So that's 8% chance in the population that this recombination is gonna occur. And basically recombination between two genes is they're separated. So, like, you know, they would be here and be would be here. So they've been separated during recombination. So, um, so you would have an 8% champions because look how close these two are together. There's an 8% chance that, you know, over here, that this guy over here is gonna, like fall in this little section between these two genes and separate them out. There's a pretty low chance, but, like be India 33% chance. Well, that's more likely. So maybe here and here. That's like a 33% chance, Um, that, you know, something can fall in there and create a recombination and separate these two genes from each other. Um, so that's kind of how we come. It's kind of like an arbitrary unit between, you know, measurement of how far these jeans are on the chromosome from each other. Um, 50% is the highest you can has. So that's greater than 50% of their genes on different chromosomes, right? Yeah. If you're talking low numbers, you're talking about genes that are directly next to each other of your tongue in high numbers. Then they're pretty far apart from each other. And then over here, we have this chromosome, Um, and we're gonna start with section B. Draw. Karma's a map. Peace in your data. So we'll start with and be 8% so we know that those are really close to each other. So we'll put them in the center to make things easy and that that's not super close. That's pretty close. So we have a and then we have B. All right. 50% of our genes are mapped. Okay, so a n c 28%. Now, things get a little trickier because a we know A and C or 28% apart. But does that mean 20% this way or 20%? This way, left or right? We don't know yet. So we're not gonna put it down because we're gonna look att? Bnc. That's 20%. That's actually a little bit closer. So we're gonna wanna put C over here because it's 8% closer to be and it be an air 8% apart than we're going to. You know, be on this side of the, uh, further away from a so that sea, um and then be in d r. 33% apart and an A India 25% apart. So kind of the Kate same concept. That's eight more percent away from being than it is from a So that means that d is going to be on this side of a, um so they didn't give us a distance between C and D because that would have really given it away. But we can see that C and D have the highest percentage of recombination. Um, s so it's pretty simple. And that's how you map these jeans out, um, on a chromosome and figure out what these with these percentages need. Okay. Thank you.

So this question is asking, What happened to it? Hydration curve. If you use a strong, he's a strong base instead of weak base. And what is special about Ah, strong base, like sodium hydroxide is that it completely associates into sodium ions and hydroxide I owns. And so when you have ah, strong base for the initial condition, you're going to have, ah, lots more hydroxide ions, which means that the pH is higher, an equilibrium as well. The 10 mils of strong acid. Well, let's carry through for the for both the strong base and the weak base, right, and then, since you end up with 10 mils of both weak base and strong base, the strong beads strong base will also have ah higher pH as a result, since you have equal parts since if you compare a weak base to a strong base and they both have the same volume, the strong base will have ah higher pH because it completely dissociated and the week basted it. And for the end, the ending pH, the weak base and strong base are completely used up. That means all high droning on my own. Hydroxide ions are completely gone. So all you consider it is this from the strong acid. Right? And the strong acid was the same for both in the end. So then that means the pH is equal for both cases and that will give you answer choice B.

All right when we compare these pH values, but we need to consider, or the type of acid and base present, as well as how they're going to react with each other, Right? So sodium hydroxide is a strong base, strong basis, completely dissociated solution. So because all of those hydroxide ions will be dissociated, that means we're gonna have a more basic or a higher initial pH with sodium hydroxide is our base. Hey, at the equivalence point, if we have strong acid in strong base, we have sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. That means that the pH is gonna be neutral, right? So a neutral ph of seven okay is present at that point because water is the only thing created other than the neutral salt. Right? So that doesn't affect the pH rights. That would be neutral or seven, right? Uh, the ending point, the post equivalence point. The pH is really driven by that excess of hydrogen ion from the hydroxyl, or gas in, so that would not change cry. So compared to our weak acid strong base, I'll be about the same way, because in terms of our strong acid that we have at that point, all of the base will be neutralized. So we'll be completely relying on the

Things, Question asks. All of the following techniques involved hybridization between single stranded nucleic acid molecules except blank. We have Southern blot analysis, RFLP analysis, Northern Blot analysis and micro array analysis. If we were to look back at the reading, we find that Southern blot analysis Northern Blot Analysis in micro or ray analysis. All are going to involve this hybridization between single stranded nucleic acid molecules. So sources a in CND I'll have this hybrid decision so we know that the question is asking for which of the following techniques will not include hybridization. Therefore, A, C and D are going to be incorrect, leaving US Choice Be or RFLP analysis as the correct answer. And basically, with RFLP, we are looking for the varying tandem. Repeat sequences were polymorphisms between samples because, as we know that these polymorphisms one exhibit variation across samples and if we are to run them out on the job, we see distinct banding patterns, so Choice B is the correct answer


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