Okay, so we are going to discuss, um, genetic recombination or crossing over, which is something that we're all familiar with and have discussed before. Even if we did know, that's what we're talking about. Like if you've ever had a friend or a family member that you were wondering, like, why are they so tall or where their curly hair come from? Neither their parents of that trade on this basically genetic recombination where, um, genes are ah ah, interchanging to create fino types that aren't expressed on either parent or, you know, these traits that are expressed in either parents. That's what we're gonna discuss today. So basically, here I have, um we've got the, ah, mother and the father chromosomes. They're both the same chromosome. Just ones from other ones from the father. We have 23 from other twin through from her father. Uh, and this is how they look before our genes needed ourselves. New divide. When our cells go through, my toast is thes replicate themselves. Exact. And then they split exactly between the cells and then the daughter cells exactly like the parents. So, um, but my office is a little different because we're creating jammies and we want these gammy. It's not look exactly like us because that's the only kind of create genetic variation and how our species survives. All species survived. Um, so that's why everybody doesn't look exactly like a pun in square of their two parents with, you know, the dominant traits. One parent in the dominant traits of the other parent. We have sort of his variations that are unexpected. So, um, here I'm showing with these stats, we have jeans, A, B, C and D on. Then they're roughly, I mean, in actual genes. It would be in the exact same place. I try to put them roughly in the exact it's in place. But even though these air from the mother and these air from the father, the gene should be the exact same place for both. Um, they're just different genes for both. So on the father, you know, he might be okay. You know, I have whatever green eyes and the blue eyes or whatever the different rates are, they're they're the same, huh thing. Few noted that there are gene that they're showing, but it's different given expressions of each Ah, so here. I'm showing in pro phase one of my Oh, sis, we have this interaction between the mother and the father chromosomes. And these air sister committed Sze connected a kinetic or, um for bulls. Uh, and and one sister primitivism comes on, and then the two together are chromosome because of showing the exact same jeans. And over here So these air crossing over each other just as the word seems, uh would make you think it does s so they're crossing over a disc, asthma, And then there's an exchange of genetic material. And then you're creating these separate individual chromosomes, which then later are pulled away part in their each given their own cell, which was the gammy. Um, so you know, if this is your so you could, you know, pass on to your offspring Either this gene, this stream, this gene or this cheap, not two of them. Not all four of them, just one of them. So you're adding this variation here, And just to show you that, you know, there's different ways that this can happen appear it's crossing over the top. You have this case at the top, and then you have these four different genes here, which are different than these. Um, so there's all sorts of different options here for how this works. Now, for a question, um, assume you're mapping genes A, B, C and D and Joseph a lot. You know that these jeans are linked on the same chromosome, and you determine the recombination frequencies between each pair of jeans to be as fellows, a B 8% a C 8 28% 80 25% B C 20% and beady. 33% describe you. Determine the recombination frequencies for each pair of jeans and drop crumbs on map based on your data. So we'll just, uh, cover a section A of this question. Um, how you determine the recombination frequency. So basically, like, say that events one and B is 8%. So that's 8% chance in the population that this recombination is gonna occur. And basically recombination between two genes is they're separated. So, like, you know, they would be here and be would be here. So they've been separated during recombination. So, um, so you would have an 8% champions because look how close these two are together. There's an 8% chance that, you know, over here, that this guy over here is gonna, like fall in this little section between these two genes and separate them out. There's a pretty low chance, but, like be India 33% chance. Well, that's more likely. So maybe here and here. That's like a 33% chance, Um, that, you know, something can fall in there and create a recombination and separate these two genes from each other. Um, so that's kind of how we come. It's kind of like an arbitrary unit between, you know, measurement of how far these jeans are on the chromosome from each other. Um, 50% is the highest you can has. So that's greater than 50% of their genes on different chromosomes, right? Yeah. If you're talking low numbers, you're talking about genes that are directly next to each other of your tongue in high numbers. Then they're pretty far apart from each other. And then over here, we have this chromosome, Um, and we're gonna start with section B. Draw. Karma's a map. Peace in your data. So we'll start with and be 8% so we know that those are really close to each other. So we'll put them in the center to make things easy and that that's not super close. That's pretty close. So we have a and then we have B. All right. 50% of our genes are mapped. Okay, so a n c 28%. Now, things get a little trickier because a we know A and C or 28% apart. But does that mean 20% this way or 20%? This way, left or right? We don't know yet. So we're not gonna put it down because we're gonna look att? Bnc. That's 20%. That's actually a little bit closer. So we're gonna wanna put C over here because it's 8% closer to be and it be an air 8% apart than we're going to. You know, be on this side of the, uh, further away from a so that sea, um and then be in d r. 33% apart and an A India 25% apart. So kind of the Kate same concept. That's eight more percent away from being than it is from a So that means that d is going to be on this side of a, um so they didn't give us a distance between C and D because that would have really given it away. But we can see that C and D have the highest percentage of recombination. Um, s so it's pretty simple. And that's how you map these jeans out, um, on a chromosome and figure out what these with these percentages need. Okay. Thank you.