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4 Give a micro explanation for each of the following phenomena: Pressure goes up as temperature goes up on a constant volumeb. Dissolving salt in waterHeat conducte...

Question

4 Give a micro explanation for each of the following phenomena: Pressure goes up as temperature goes up on a constant volumeb. Dissolving salt in waterHeat conducted along a metal:

4 Give a micro explanation for each of the following phenomena: Pressure goes up as temperature goes up on a constant volume b. Dissolving salt in water Heat conducted along a metal:



Answers

You place hot metal into a beaker of cold water. a. Eventually what is true about the temperature of the metal compared to that of the water? Explain why this is true. b. Label this process as endothermic or exothermic if we consider the system to be i. the metal. Explain. il. the water. Explain.

So this problem assets to give an example for each of the following situations. The situation A is adding he twisted stem will raise its temperature well. One way to think about this and one example of this very clearly. We microwaving some food. For example, if I have a sandwich in a microwave. Four. He's called this a sandwich. It's going to be at room temperature, but then when I put it in the microwave and I kick it out, it's going to be much harder. Let's say now it's going to be 90 F. So when I apply heat to the system, which in this case is a sandwich now it gets harder. That's an example of how adding key tourism raises its temperature. Now let's to part B. We're adding he to system does not raise or change its temperature. Let's think about a situation that without a curse, let's see, I ice a deer degree Celsius and then I play a lot of heat to that ice, and then it melts into water. But that water is still at zero degree Celsius. The only thing that that has changed that the heat has changed is actually just changed. This data matter is not changed temperature. And that's why whenever you're solving these kinds of problems or how much heat is required to go from iced water, it's the heat of vaporization because that doesn't change the temperature of the system, which in this case is ice slash water. Now we have part C, which is a system temperature has changed, even though no heat is added or moved from it well, intuitively. The best example of a system that would work is an isolated system that has no heat entering or exiting. But she is produced within the system itself. So I have a reaction here and I have a B A B B A. And my reaction is a plus B. You'll see I will soon have three moles of C. And because combination reactions are usually exo, thermic, I will see heat being generated and the heat of the outs of the system being increased, which in this case is the box and not necessarily the compounds without any heater exiting, entering or anything. So that's an example of a closed system in which the temperature changes, even though no heat was removed or released from outside of the system.

Mhm. In this video, we're going to look at how irreversible processes are related to entropy. So we'll first start off and talk a little bit about this connection. Um And then we will look at some alternative interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics. Then we both relate these interpretations to some irreversible processes. So, first of all, an irreversible process is one in which if you played the video of the process happening in reverse, it would seem impossible. Think about unscrambling an egg or fixing a broken egg can be done, but would be fairly difficult to do in that second case. But how it comes into thermodynamics, let's imagine like most places do a high temperature reservoir at a low temperature reservoir. The first law of a zero flaw. Let's put it that way of thermodynamics says that you always have a equalization of temperature, which means that heat Or thermal energy flows only one way in the physical world, heat would only flow spontaneously from a high temperature reservoir to a low temperature reservoir. If we look at the change in entropy of those two US systems, those two reservoirs for the high reservoir DELTA. S. Is defined to be uh huh, losing the heat, the Q. Over the high temperature and for the low test reservoir, that same entropy change formula is absorbing the queue at a low temperature. And because the high temperature is bigger than the low temperature, that means um the blue delta S. The cold DELTA S. Is bigger than the read delta S. Okay, so here's a mathematical statement of this, I this this observation that heat only spontaneously flows from high temperature to low temperature. The mathematical statement is entropy um in a closed system with a simplistic idea of a low at high temperature reservoir that it can only increase or stay the same. Okay, and the idea then is that if you played a movie of the heat flowing the opposite way, it would not make any sense. Just does not occur in nature. So that's the connection between the mathematical definition of entropy and an irreversible process. Now some alternative interpretations come from the fact that there are devices called heat engines. They may not always be called that, but um that use this natural flow of energy to do useful work. So the idea is you put something in the way of that heat flow. It could be little paddles that get pushed around as the heat moves from one area to the other, but you can actually get some useful work out of that natural flow. So some alternative interpretations are that entropy increases if you lose. Okay, so here's some statements, Let me Put the 1st 1 down. Um entropy increases when heat, thermal energy Q flow spontaneously from hot to cold. The other statement is that entropy increases if you lose the ability to do useful work from that natural flow. So the flow is referring to the previous statement. And a third interpretation is an entropy increases if you must input work from the rest of the universe in order to um make something happen. Uh huh. Uh replace initial conditions in a thermodynamic system um and sometimes in a mechanical system. But here we're really talking about big collections of gas particles, liquids, et cetera. So let's take a look at some examples and how they illustrate this. So the first example is gas that's been in a container under pressure and we have an atmosphere outside And let's have p. one Greater than P. zero. And there's some sort of gas inside and somehow the lid pops open a little bit and the gas leaks out. Now, aside from calculating whether heat went uh naturally from hi spot to a low spot, which very well could be. What we really want to think about is the ability of that gas to do useful work. It had a larger pressure to begin with. And as the gas leaks out, there's an equalization of pressure and that means that if you were to have a piston inside of that can um the new pressure would not be able to do as much work as P one. Okay, lass ability to move a piston. And so here is the idea of losing the ability to you use to do useful work. Even though we haven't said anything about the spontaneous flow of heat from the gas into the atmosphere. Example two mixing liquids is kind of the same argument, but that there may be an alternative argument. So we'll have to containers and there was some sort of barrier, Let's say, a sheet of plastic and you've got liquid one and you've got liquid too and they both have a certain pressure pressure. Wanted pressure to and it's sort of the same idea if you remove that barrier, what will happen is the pressures will equalize so that you get them all mixed up and there's a single pressure and so um that you could not put a piston in there um to use the difference in He wanted p. two anymore to do useful work on a piston. Okay. That you would somehow place into the liquids. Okay. Um so that's again the idea of this degraded energy and the loss of ability to do useful work by the spontaneous flow of things. and then example three is probably more classical idea of thermodynamic entropy. You have ice sitting in a room. This is at zero C and your room is at room temperature. This is the idea of you have a spontaneous flow of cute from a high temperature to a low temperature. And that using the mathematical definition of entropy, um we can see that delta? S into the lower temperature. Let's put the colors back. But basically the flow out of the positive S still to s out of into the ice is bigger than the negative delta. S up the room. Yeah. Yeah. Yes. So it's back to the original idea of how entropy is related to the flow of time or the natural flow of things in the universe.

Answer for part A. In a pressure cooker cooker. The pressure inside is higher than the atmospheric pressure. Therefore, it requires higher temperature to ask you bowling. Since the rate of reaction increases as temperature increases. Cooking time is much faster in the pressure cooker, so we have the answer here. Cooking time is foster in pressure. Cougar do you to a liberated temperature and he served for part B salsa. Non voluntary. Hence we assault. When assault result in water, it forms a solution with freezing point that it's much lower than when it is pure. This Qala gated property is God freezing point depression. When the ambient temperature is higher than the depressed praising point the ice melts. However, it will not work if the ambient temperature is lower than the depressed pressing point, so the answer would be it will not okay work if the ambient temperature or is lower. Bandy depressed freezing point until for part C. When a solution undergoes freezing. On lee, the pure water forms the eyes, while the more concentrated sole solution is left behind. Therefore, when the frozen save water melts, it forms pure water to the injuries. Frozen sea water miles to form pure water. Answer for party c 02 Sublime Seems when it is released from fire Extreme Vischer as predicted from EADS first telegram

This is question 95 from chapter 11 and they give us four scenarios and we have to describe each one so a thing. There's an increase in pressure in a core retire on a hot day. So how do we explain this so pressure? What we know is that pressure is proportional the temperature. So when a hot day is happening, there is gonna be an increase in temperature. So this means there's an increase in pressure, so increase intent, increase and pressure. Okay, he says, How do you explain your popping sound of a paper bag? So a back pops due to the pressure inside the bag increasing it is going to keep increasing until the wolves can't handle it. So But when it pops because religion increasing pressure, this offer is gonna decrease the volume. Significant. Kindly. Okay, so that's why you sure that popping sound cause when the gas leaves the bag, it's basically due to the external and internal pressure of the air. Okay. See, we have the experience. You have a weather balloon. So this is going up. So when you go on up in this guy, um, we all know that pressure increases so wretchedly creases going over an altitude, but someone pressure decreases. Chris means that role, um, is going increase due to we know from Boyle's law. So what? It's increased less expansion of the water balloons that shows this inverse relationship they have. And D says, with the loud noise from a light bulb shatters. So this is I want to be back to pressure thing. So the pressure inside the bull is higher than the outside to the external pressure. And this breaks due to the change in the pressures of the pressure being greater than what atmospheric pressure causing the loud noise precious, larger.


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