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2 - Dihybrid crosses treat two traits at a time. The data provided represent kernels of the Fz generation. You will analyze the pattern for two traits: color and te...

Question

2 - Dihybrid crosses treat two traits at a time. The data provided represent kernels of the Fz generation. You will analyze the pattern for two traits: color and texture. Both parental (Pz) strains were pure-breeding: One parent had cobs with purple kernels that were starchy and full looking: The other parent had cobs that with yellow kernels that were sugary and shrunken:In the space below, indicate the genotypes for P1, F1 & Fz generations and calculate expected phenotypes of the Fz genera

2 - Dihybrid crosses treat two traits at a time. The data provided represent kernels of the Fz generation. You will analyze the pattern for two traits: color and texture. Both parental (Pz) strains were pure-breeding: One parent had cobs with purple kernels that were starchy and full looking: The other parent had cobs that with yellow kernels that were sugary and shrunken: In the space below, indicate the genotypes for P1, F1 & Fz generations and calculate expected phenotypes of the Fz generation using an appropriate Punnett Square. Test your hypothesis based on the data provided to you. Complete a chi- square analysis. Show your work in the space below: Four Phenotypes: Purple and full, purple and wrinkled, yellow and full, yellow and wrinkled. Data: Purple and full 92 purple and wrinkled 34 yellow and full 27 yellow and wrinkled Total offspring 160



Answers

Chromosomally normal corn plants have a $p$ locus on chromosome 1 and an s locus on chromosome 5 $P$ gives dark green leaves; $p,$ pale green leaves. S gives large ears; $s$, shrunken ears. An original plant of genotype $P / p ; \mathrm{S} / \mathrm{s}$ has the expected phenotype (dark green, large ears) but gives unexpected results in crosses as follows:On selfing, fertility is normal, but the frequency of $p / p ; \mathrm{s} / \mathrm{s}$ types is $1 / 4(\text { not } 1 / 16 \text { as expected })$ When crossed with a normal tester of genotype $p / p$ $\mathrm{s} / \mathrm{s},$ the $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ progeny are $\frac{1}{2} ; P / p ; S / \mathrm{s}$ and $\frac{1}{2} ; p / p ; \mathrm{s} / \mathrm{s}$ fertility is normal.When an $\mathrm{F}_{1} P / p ; S / \mathrm{s}$ plant is crossed with a normal $p / p ; s / s$ tester, it proves to be semisterile, but, again, the progeny are $\frac{1}{2} ; P / p ; S / s$ and $\frac{1}{2} ; p / p ; s / s$.Explain these results, showing the full genotypes of the original plant, the tester, and the $\mathrm{F}_{1}$ plants. How would you test your hypothesis?

The way that I would suggest you tackling this problem is to divide the, um, Tina types of by color and by shape. And so I've done that. So if we look at color when you have is 37 red radishes, 63 purple radishes and 32 white radishes, and I added them up to make sure I didn't miss add. And so that's 132. If we look at these numbers, this is a one to choose one ratio, which is characteristic of incomplete dominance. And so we know. Then the two is the headers. I go and so we can write that here. I just made the red homeless like this dominant in the white homos, I guess. Recess it. But you could flip up those. No problem now for the shape I did the same thing. There's 30 too long radishes, 76 oval radishes and 24 round radishes. Again, I added him up to make sure didn't miss anybody, and this, again is a 1 to 2 to one ratio. So oval. I just use our is the headers I go. I made long homos, I guess dominant and round homes, I guess process it. And so we're asked to figure out the parents Oven oval, purple radish. And it's easy for us to do that, because now we know over is hetero service. We know purple is headers, IBIs, and so if you produce oval, one parent has to be long and the other parent has to be around. And then for purple, it's the same thing one parent has to be read. The other parent has to be white. And so if we put all this together, the parents must have been long and Red Cross with a round white radish. Now it is not wrong for you to say your parents were long whites crossed with round red, so that would give the same results we don't really know. And so it's some combination of Long and Red Cross with rounded white radishes to yield oval and purple radishes. Now, using this information with an answer, be part if we take a long herbal radish and cross that with an oval purple radish. What kind of offspring do hit well long? I made homeless ideas dominant, and we know that purple is headers, itis for color and We know that oval is headers, I guess as well as purple. And so we can identify are meals for the the hybrid calls that you have to do. We'll have four wheels for each one, and then we can't do a die hybrid cross to figure out what the offspring would be in the F one. So this is the parental generation loops of what happened there. And then you do die hybrid calls for the F one. So I'm just gonna draw a die hybrid cross here. I hope it this parent along the top, this parent down the side. And I just stuck these two together because they're the same. And then we'll bring them together, okay? And now we could determine what our ratios were going to be. So such colors here. So people might been. So how many big are big are big a big A. So you have to have one. I'm stupid. Check marks five because it gets a little crazy. I want to be able to see that. But, um, are all so 2/16 and then what about cigar? Big are we get a little a one to really four. Well, then big car Big are too little A's What? And then let's do the header rows I got's for our We're psycho A Who knows? I go and then two big days 12 players I go are headers like a. So there should before those 12 three for almost done or 16th and then our last one headers like there are two little eggs 2 16 and then I always count to make sure about right So 248 1911 12 That 16 got em all to you. And so then, if we look, we concert. Putting peanut touch with these so big, too big ours that's along. So this guy is long and two Big A's. You go back and work at the top, but that's red. So this one is long. Red radish, two big doors. That's long letters. I get a is purple two. Big ours. That's long, too Little ace, That's what. And so we have a 1 to 2 to one ratio of Long red, Long purple Long. Why branches and then, for these headers I go remember, is oval. So all three of these air oval shaped and again the colors match the top. So this is oval. Red headers like a is purple and then homes like this process, it is white, so we have a 1 to 2 to one ratio of oval, red, oval, purple and over ones.

So the question that we're looking at involves a cross between snapdragons of different colors and their color of their flower depends on their Gina type. We have read snapdragons, which are Hamas. I got's for Leo are one. We have white snapdragons, which are Hamas. I got's for Lille are too. And we have pink, um, Snapdragons? No, who are headers? I go. So they have both. Leel are one and are too. But because they're headers I goats and they have both Leal's there Flower color is pink. Um so for a first cross that we're looking at is a cross between, um homes, Legace parent and another hunters like a spirit. So to solve this, we just make upon its square, um, and will have parent one of the top in parent with side. So we just separate each parent into, um by which illegals are contributing to the cross. So the parent one will contribute to our one Leal's compared to contribute one or one wheel when our to Leo in Just by going down and going across and filling up each box in the table, you can see what the genotype of the resulting offspring from this cross will be so 1/4 of the offspring will be or one or one The other force will also be our winner. One, um, the third else raise the cross. A little fourth will be, um, or one or two. And the last fourth will also be or one hour to So we can see that, um, half the offspring. We'll be Hamas, I guess. For the R one. Well, um, half will be read what? One and the other half will be Headers. I go still have will be pink and they'll have a genotype for one or two home. So the second cross that we're looking at is a cross between two homes, like those parents, but they will be homes Argus for the different A wheels. So again, we just make her point It square. You've parent one of the top again contributing one or one another or one parent to kind of meeting or two and another are too and again going down and across we just fill each table in the square. Um, so, uh, first offspring will be our winner too. Um, second will be r one r two third Will be your one or two. And the fourth will be our one are to, um So you can see here that all the offspring or four will be pink with the genotype are one or two. And oh, our third cross, um, is our third cross is a cross between 200 I guess. Parents center both. So you have the genotype are one. So make more planets where a gun this period went with hope. Well, parent to its side to and filling each books have the first offspring is our one or one second is for one are too. The third offspring will be or one or two, and the fourth will be. Are too are too. So you can see that all the different FINA types are represented in this cross. You're gonna have 1/4 of the offspring being read as their homes, I guess. For R one R one, um, you're gonna have to make a better ship. I'm gonna have when half of the offspring being pink as their headers. I got's. They have both r one and r two, and you're going to have the last, um, quarter of the offspring being white as they are Hamas, I go, Oh ho was Argus for are to Okay, um, in the final across, when you're working with is a cross between hunters like its parent and, ah, Hamas, I guess white parents. So it'll be our to, um, in making pretty square again. Your parents one meeting or one or two parent to contributing to are to Leal's and filling in each offspring we have are one or two for the first r two R two for the second R one R two in the third and our two or two in the fourth. And looking at the proportion of offspring, we see that 1/4 Sorry, when half will be, um, hundreds, I guess. Offspring. So they will be pink with Gina type or one or two, and the other half will be Hamas. I guess, Um, for our to and, um, they will appear. What do you like to you is they're going to take okay, And that

So the question that we're looking at involves a cross between snapdragons of different colors and their color of their flower depends on their Gina type. We have read snapdragons, which are Hamas. I got's for Leo are one. We have white snapdragons, which are Hamas. I got's for Lille or two and we have pink, um, snapdragons? No, who are headers? I go. So they have both. Leel are one and are too. But because they're headers I goats and they have both Leal's there. Flower color is pink. Um so for a first cross that we're looking at is a cross between, um, homes, Legace parent and another hunters like a spirit. So to solve this, we just make upon its square, um, and will have parent one of the top in parent with side. So we just separate each parent into, um by which illegals are contributing to the cross. So the parent one will contribute to our one Leal's compared to contribute one or one wheel when our to Leo in Just by going down and going across and filling up each box in the table, you can see what the genotype of the resulting offspring from this cross will be so 1/4 of the offspring will be for one or one. The other force will also be our winner. One, um, the third else raise the cross. That'll fourth will be, um, or one or two. And the last fourth will also be our one hour to, So we can see that, um, half the offspring. We'll be Hamas, I guess. For the r one Lille, um, half will be read. Well, one and the other half will be headers I go to still have will be pink and they'll have a genotype for one are to home. So the second cross that we're looking at is a cross between two homes, like those parents. But they will be homes, I guess, for the different A wheels. So again we just make her point of square. You've parent one of the top again contributing one or one another or one parent to kind of meeting our two and another are too and again going down and across we just fill each table in the square. Um, so, uh, first offspring will be our winner too. Um, second will be r one R two third will be your one or two. And the fourth will be our one are to, um So you can see here that all the offspring or four will be, I think with the genotype are one or two. And oh, our third cross, um, is our third cross is a cross between 200 I guess. Parents center both. So you have the genotype are one. So make more planets Where a gun this period went with hope. Well, parent to it suffered to and filling each books have the first offsprings are one or one second is for one are too. The third offspring will be or one or two, and the fourth will be Are too are too. So you can see that all the different FINA types are represented in this cross. You're gonna have 1/4 of the offspring being read as their homes, I guess. For R one R one, um, you're gonna have to make it better, Schickele. I'm gonna have when half of the offspring being pink as their headers. I got's. They have both r one and r two, and you're going to have the last, um, quarter of the offspring being white as they are Hamas. I go Jose Reyes for are to Okay, um, in the final across, when you're working with is a cross between hunters like its parent and, ah, Hamas, I guess white parents. So it'll be our to, um in making pretty square again. Parents one meeting or one or two parent to contributing to are to Leal's and filling in each offspring we have are one or two for the first r two R two for the second R one R two in the third and our two or two in the fourth. And looking at the proportion of offspring, we see that 1/4 Sorry, when half will be, um, hundreds, I guess. Offspring. So they will be pink with Gina type or one or two, and the other half will be Hamas. I guess, Um, for our to and, um, they will appear. What do you like to you is they're going to take okay, and that that


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