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Medical rescarcher Dlves supenor the existing dnjg?muscic relaxantpatientsdetermines that 58 njve peneiicial resuits Iine Muscle relaxants cumentynavesuccessTest Wn...

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Medical rescarcher Dlves supenor the existing dnjg?muscic relaxantpatientsdetermines that 58 njve peneiicial resuits Iine Muscle relaxants cumentynavesuccessTest Wnether the new druqCncose tne nuil hypothesis bY recording the lettervour choice Irom DelouHO:CamtnsterTries 0/1 Cnoose the altemative hypothesis by recording the letter Ha:your choice from belowHj; Ha:0.79EcmmAnsnacUrieswnutYaluetest statistic? Givc our Jnswcrtwo digits pust the decimal:Svwnul AnswelTries 0/5 value signlficance probab

medical rescarcher Dlves supenor the existing dnjg? muscic relaxant patients determines that 58 njve peneiicial resuits Iine Muscle relaxants cumenty nave success Test Wnether the new druq Cncose tne nuil hypothesis bY recording the letter vour choice Irom Delou HO: Camtnster Tries 0/1 Cnoose the altemative hypothesis by recording the letter Ha: your choice from below Hj; Ha: 0.79 EcmmAnsnac Uries wnut Yalue test statistic? Givc our Jnswcr two digits pust the decimal: Svwnul Answel Tries 0/5 value signlficance probability? Give VomF answer What places past decimal; cuathout leading Swomm Answcr Tries 0/5 Chcose tne approprlate conclusion ayiccncc aqainst the null hypothesis weak evidence against the nue hypothesis Strono evidence against the null hypothesis strono evldence agalnst the null hypothesis Enmidanhel Urics



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Hypothesis tests are proposed. For each hypothesis lest, a. identify the variable. b. identify the two populations. c. identify the pairs. d. identify the pained-difference variable. e. determine the null and alternative hypotheses. f. classify the hypothesis test as two tailed, left tailed, or right tailed. Hypnosis and Pain. In the paper "An Analysis of Factors That Contribute to the Efficacy of Hypnotic Analgesia" Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 96. No. 1, pp. 46-51), D. Price and J. Barber examined the effects of hypnosis on pain. They measured response to pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS), in centimeters, where higher VAS indicates greater pain. VAS sensory ratings were made before and after hypnosis on each of 16 subjects. A hypothesis test is to be performed to decide whether, on average, hypnosis reduces pain.

In this problem, we're going to be testing the effectiveness off. ECON ASIA In treating calls, we have two groups off subjects. The first subject was given a kidney Asia. The first group was given magnesia, and the second group was given a placebo. So we can say P one hunt represents the proportion off the people who developed the retrovirus infections after being given a condition, and that is 40 45. So that's a fraction off. Those who developed renew various infections after being given akin Asia. And for those who developed in various infections after being given the possible are 88 out off a total of 103 subjects. And to test the effectiveness off back in Asia for Coles, we're going to use two approaches. The fast approach is going to be a hypothesis. Test on the second one is going to be the confidence interval. So we're going to use the 0.5 significance level, and we're testing the clean that back in Asia has an effect on rhinovirus infections. We're not giving, uh, we're not saying that one has ah, one is more effective than they ever were. Just saying that there is no effect on grain of virus infections that makes these tests are two tails test on the critical value on that is plus or minus 1.96 So let's go ahead and get the test statistic, which is that obtained by substituting the values obtained into the formula. And when we do so, we get the calculated value of that zero point 573 and when we compare the calculated value of that and the critical value of that in this case we have it as 1.96 positive and negative 1.96 So the calculated value of that is zero 0.573 and it is not within the critical region and for that reason we fail to reject the narrow hypothesis. Failure to reject an al hypotheses means that there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that back in Asia has a NIF effect. So we move on to the second test by constructing an appropriate confidence interval and to do so to get a 95% confidence interval. We need to use the formula given and fast work out the margin of error e, and when you substitute the values off into the formula, we get that. The margin of error e is 0.1143 and when we substitute this into their confidence interval, we get that. The intervals limits are negative. 0.7 93 less than P 1 may not be too, and 0.1493 So we noticed that the confidence interval limits do contain zero, so zero is included within the confidence interval limits and thes shows that there is not significance thing. There is not a significant difference between the two proportions because when zero is included, WAY can see that there is not a significant difference between the proportions. In other words, there is no sufficient evidence to support the claim that back in Asia treatments has an effect. And in the last part of the question see, we're answering the question. Does echinacea appear to have any effect on the infection rate and according to the results, we see that back in Asia does not appear to have a significant effect on the infection rate and because it does not appear to have an effect, a significant effect, it should not be recommended because it's a safe for those two proportions do not have any significant difference.

In this problem, we're going to be testing the clean that the survival rates for patients who had cardiac arrest during the the D. Waas the same uh huh, for patients who had carried cardiac arrest at night. So we have two samples way. Have patients who got cardiac arrests. That's not during the day and the proportion off those who survived. He's 1 11,000 604 our tooth 58,000 593. So that's the proportion for patients who survived. You survived during the day, and that's night. The proportion of patients who survived waas 4000 139 out off 28,000 155 So we're testing the clean that the survival rates are the same for day and night. So we're going to do that using the hypothesis test method and using the confidence interval method. So the level of significance Alfa it's 0.1 on the non hypothesis he is P one is equal to P two alternative policies. His P one is not equal to be to, and for that reason, the critical value for Zet he is classroom minus 2.5 seven. So now we can walk out the test statistics and substituting the values into the formula. And when you do that, the calculated values that is 18 point 27 and when we compare that to the critical value, you'll notice that the value 18 is within the critical region. That's 18.27 So since it's within the critical region, we make the conclusion to reject the non hypothesis and when rejected an hypothesis, we conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that the survival rates are the same for day and night. Now we move on to the second approach, which is the confidence interval method, and here we work out the value of the margin of error by substituting the values into the formula. And when we do that, we get that e is zero point 00 69 on the confidence interval limits are 0.0 441 and 0.0 five 79 So according to the confidence inter form, the confidence interval limits do not include zero. So since they did not include zero, it appears that the two proportions are not equal because the confidence interval limits include Onley positive values. It appears that they read off survival during the day is different from that at night and therefore it is it is in agreement with the fast test name for this is test. So based on the results, were supposed to tell when it appears that for in house or in hospital patients who have a cardiac arrest, the survival rate is the same for day and night. And since we rejected another hypotheses, we see that one of these writs is much greater than the other, and when we give the percentage off survival during the day, the percentage is 19 8% and at night the percentage is 14.7%. So this since there's a significant difference between the two proportions, then we can conclude that the survival rates are much better during the day compared to the night

In this problem, we're going to be testing the claim that oxygen treatment is effective for people who have very painful cluster headaches. We have two samples. One sample received oxygen treatment on the other sample received possible treatments, so 150 patients were treated with oxygen, and out of the 150 people, 116 are free from headaches, so the proportion is 116 divided by 115. And for those who are given the possible, you have 29 free from from the headaches 15 minutes of the treatment out off a total of 148 patients. So we're going to test the claim that the oxygen treatment is effective and we're going to use two approaches. The fast approach will be the hypothesis hypothesis test, and the second one will be. The confidence interval meant better now for the hypothesis test method. We're going to have the Nahal hypotheses as P one equals p two, which is to say that the proportions are equal and to prove that them oxygen treatment is effective. It would be that the proportion off those who received oxygen treatment and war free from headaches is greater than the proportion off those who received the placebo. And we're free from, um, headaches. Now we can work out the test statistics by substituting the values we obtained into the formula for that. And when we do so, the calculator value of that is nine point 96 Next, we can get the critical value for this, uh, one tales test at the 0.1 significance level. On the calculated value of that is the critical value of set for that is going to be 2.33 So we can compare the conclusive body of that in the critical money upset. And in this case, we have 2.33 can shape that critical region, and we see that 9.96 is within the critical region. And for that reason we reject the national hypothesis. This'll means that there is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the cure rate with oxygen treatment is higher than the cure it for those given a placebo. So it appears that the oxygen treatment is effective from the hypothesis test. Let's see what happens when we conduct the confidence interval test So for the confidence interval, we need to substitute the value, Uh, the values that we have obtained the into the formula and to get the imagine of error e And when we do so, imagine of error is 0.1101 And when we can also substitute the values, uh, into the expression for the confidence interval you obtained, the interval limits US zero 0.4669 less than p one in a speed too less than 0.6871 And when you look at the intervals at the interval limits, we do not have zero in between. So the internal limits do not include zero, and that means that the two curates are not equal. In other words, we would have to weigh would have to reject the null hypothesis. So this confidence interval test is in agreement with the hypothesis test. And so it appears it appears that the cure it with oxygen treatment is higher than the cure it for those given a placebo, and that means that the oxygen treatment is effective. Next, we're going to to give a reason as's, too, as whether or not the oxygen treatment is effective based on the two tests. So based on the two results the conflict, the hype of the serious test and also the confidence interval test, there's an agreement that there is a difference between those two proportions. So the results. Both results suggest that the oxygen treatment is effective in curing cluster headaches.

So in discussion, we know that the null hypothesis age not is that P is equal to 0.23 On the alternative hypothesis H A, there's a P is not equal. Does your zero three? As for the rejection region, this is the two tailed tests for Alfa is equal to 0.5 on the critical values of Z. Yeah, critical r Z is equal to negative 1.96 z to is equal 296. Therefore, we know they have to reject checked our no hypothesis H not. Yes, G because last time negative 1.96 or greater. Don't welcome, friend six. Okay, Now for the test statistic, we know that Z is equal to P virus. He over the square root off P times one minus p. That s p over. Okay, so, Playgirl, all our values and we get 0.258 Okay. Minus June 23. Over. Discouraged. What was your point? 03 times one minus your appointment. Your three over. But was 924. She's our end, which will give us a Z value of negative one. No. So as P value is zero point. You're five second for which is greater than did you appoint your five. Therefore you can fill to reject the no happens is h not.


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