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A scientist was interesled which study strategics worked best for doing wellin a statistics cOUrse: Thcy published research articlc thal reports thc [ollowing resul...

Question

A scientist was interesled which study strategics worked best for doing wellin a statistics cOUrse: Thcy published research articlc thal reports thc [ollowing results: F(4.18) 8.07 . 05.n= 0.538. Werc lhc rcsults signilicanl?The 2lpha IEvel woul? haveDro Idecmake tns determinalion:Cannolc? determ n from this informalion:

A scientist was interesled which study strategics worked best for doing wellin a statistics cOUrse: Thcy published research articlc thal reports thc [ollowing results: F(4.18) 8.07 . 05.n= 0.538. Werc lhc rcsults signilicanl? The 2lpha IEvel woul? have Dro Idec make tns determinalion: Cannolc? determ n from this informalion:



Answers

The article "Heavy Drinking and Polydrug Use Among College Students" $(J .$ of Drug Issues,
$2008 : 445-466 )$ stated that 51 of the 462 college students in a sample had a lifetime abstinence
population sampled had completely abstained from alcohol use? Test the appropriate hypotheses.
[Note: The article used more advanced statistical methods to study the use of various drugs
among students characterized as light, moderate, and heavy drinkers.]

Okay. This problem is asking us which of these compounds is considered to be clinically approved to treat cancer. Which one of these is considered to be un reactive and which of these is considered to be to insult able? Okay, so let's go ahead and analyze each of these. So if you read the passage above this problem number 51 then you would have seen that they gave an example some of to this one in which they used sulfur as opposed to nitrogen. Well, sulfur, as we know, is a super good nuclear file. It would attacks basically anything insight that is Electra Filic. So, in this case, because this is a similar compound, this nitrogen is gonna behave like that. Sulfur in the above passages, and it's gonna go ahead and attack this carbon attached. That Korean, the Korean is a good nuclear file. You can go ahead and leave like that. Okay, so we're going to end up forming, um, in a pox. I'd like molecule, except instead of my auction, it's going to be my nitrogen. Okay, we're gonna have this compound like this. So nitrogen connected to my other carbon with a Korean and I'm gonna have this three member green like this. Okay? That means I have a positive charge right there. Okay, so that is gonna be the result of that. And then a pock sides, even though this isn't exactly the Parkside, but similar, Um, my DNA, a nuclear file attached to DNA. So let's just say I have managed to connected to DNA a larger component of Vienna. The image to could go ahead and attack that the base of that epoxy. I'd like molecule. Okay. And that is because we have that angle strain. It's going to be super el Electra Filic just because it wants to open up that rain to relieve the tension in the bonds and also to relieve this nitrogen of its posit charge. OK, so after that, we should get, um, basically an opened up green. So we have to consider is not going to be reactive, underactive or insoluble. Okay? And in order to determine that, let's just compare it to the other ones. So, in order to get a better estimate of what's what? Okay, so that's gonna be that I'll erase this for now, so I have more room. Okay? What about the next one and this next one? We have the same. Exactly. And we form the pox. I'd like molecule based on the nitrogen attacking that carbon, releasing that Korean has a, um, leaving group. Okay, so this should be my product of that. If you have the three member green and then my corn right there. Kate posit charge on the court on that nitrogen. Okay, so very similar reaction. Except the only difference is we have this benzene as opposed to this CH three group, so I'll remember that. But now let's go ahead and work on the other ones, and then we can compare the three of them at once. Okay. What about this one? So this one same exactly. Nitrogen attacks my carbon releases That Korean ends up with my product. Okay. I'll just, um, to play this. Oops. Do pit. Okay. And I'm gonna draw my three member Doreen right here, and that's opposes charge. Okay, So because I formed that remembering again, three member drains are super unfavorable. We just because we have that angle strain, right, we don't want to have the ankle strain. If it's an SP three hybridized Adam we want to relieve the tension in those bonds so that we don't have that much industry. Okay? And then these pox, I'd like molecules. They're going to be vulnerable to nuclear attack, which is what would potentially calculate our DNA That would, um, help to treat cancer. Okay, so which of these is considered to be the best formation of the nuclear fall? I mean electrified. And what I mean by that is which of these nitrogen is between this one? This one And this one? Which of these is going to be most likely to attack that carbon to form that epoxy? I'd like molecule in the first place. So if we're looking at this one, Well, first of all, the only difference between all these is the substitute attachment agents on this one, we have a benzene, this one. We have a stage three and then this one. We have the benzene attached to my health ahead. So basically Benzel died. So let's compare each of these. So in this one, we have that nitrogen. But we also have this Benzie so that benzene is doing little to contribute to that. Um, the nuclear Felicity of the nitrogen. Same with a CH three. Except for the CH three. It's kind of pushing electrons towards that excursion through the inductive effect. Right. So we know that nitrogen is Mawr, Electra negative and ch three. So that nitrogen is gonna essentially be pulling electrons away from that stage three group and kind of similar to dispensing. Right? This benzene is primarily composed of carbon 100 wins. It's gonna be pulling it a little bit towards it. Okay. But it's also kind of gonna be pushing it towards it simply because of the, um, air modesty of that rain. Right. We can also donate electrons towards the rain, moving electrons around here, etcetera, etcetera, etcetera. All right, so it's gonna be a mixture of both we're gonna be pulling and also, um, pushing electrons. OK, but as far as the ch three gross, we're only going to be pulling electrons towards that next June. Okay? And then this one, we're gonna have a combination. Both inductive. We were gonna be pulling three residents were gonna be pushing. Okay, what about this one? So this one very similar to the benzene one, except this one is going to be primarily pushing Ben, uh, electrons onto that benzene. And that's because I have the presence of this album. Hide right, that all the head has an auction. Auction is considered to be super Electra Negative. It wants toe have electrons even more so than nitrogen. So if I'm pushing electrons towards the benzene with this nitrogen, that means that in cycle electrons over here, over here, etcetera, etcetera all. And the eventual formation of a double on here, um, right here and then the formation of the auction with the naked charge there. Okay, so that, um, nitrogen is overall pushing electrons towards that Benzedrine, making it less likely to put its electrons onto that carbon to form the Parkside like molecule. Okay, so in the comparison of all these at once, we know that we want to have the nuclear on oxygen attack the carbon connected to the Korean. So the one that is contributing most towards that nuclear Felicity is this one. So this one is gonna be considered the most direct route. This this one is the one that's gonna be using clinical trials. This one is considered to be protect, perhaps insoluble. And that's because we have this very non polar molecule benzene, and that's connected to my nitrogen. This one is mostly likely gonna be insoluble Intrav in Venice. Lee, Just because in our body we have lots of water, it's very polar, and this benzene is considered non polar. It's not gonna be as soluble. Where is this one? We have a polarity check because we have the nitrogen, chlorine, Koreans, but also this auction. So it's gonna be polar, but it's going to be to underactive. And that's because we have the presence of this album that all the head is gonna be pulling electrons away from the nitrogen, making that nitrogen less likely to behave as a nuclear file to attack the base of that, um, carbon releasing that Corinne a za leaving group, right? It's just gonna be too reactive, so again reactive to be used in clinical trials insoluble. That's because it's polar. Sorry, it's it's the most non polar, and then this one is going to be under active. Simple, because the Alba head contributes most towards the, um, non nuclear Felicity of that next June

So this problem is, um, more of a generalization problem, and we can just look at we can start crossing us on the answer choices that we know for a fact cannot be correct. So the scientists who opposed Alvarez theory believed that the Earth was the end of the rotation period. Mass extinction was caused by a gradual change value. Volcanic eruptions, etcetera. Not necessarily a meter, meteor crash or collision. Nothing extraterrestrial A supposed to the Alvarez theory which believe that a giant meteor crashed onto earth, killing Mitt. Most of the animals are most of life on Earth. So in cross out f immediately f and J because these are actually the opposite of what the other saying in the passage and then looking at G and H, we see that, um, it doesn't really make any sense, because even if age were to occur, iridium were found in recent meteorites, this wouldn't be this. We can't be sure that this is necessarily the case for past meteorites that occurred millions of years ago. So we're going to go with a G

Probleble 22 Asks us to go back to section 1.1 and read an article regarding um educational tv and toddlers to determine if different types of television shows affect toddlers future behavior. The first question asked us the first part of the question, I apologize, asks us what type of observation I'll study is it? We know that it's an observational study. We don't know what type. So let's take a look at what the article talks about and whether or not we can rule some things out. So in the article, they they had parents fill out a questionnaire a questionnaire In 1997, When the kids were toddlers, toddlers under three and then they filled out another one. In 2002, the one in 1997 asked them what type of television shows their toddler watched and to the 2002 questionnaire talked about behavioral issues what type of behavior um happened with the kids. So taking a look at cross section and cross sectioning says it takes place over a short period of time and it's quick and inexpensive now, I don't know about you, but if I was under three, I would think that five years is a long period of time. So let's get rid of cross sectioning case control. You look at past info or existing records. So both the times the parents filled out the questionnaire was present day for them. They filled out the questionnaire in 1997 about how they watch TV. They filled it out again in 2000 to about um what the kid's behavior was like. So they're not looking in the past each time it is in the present, so we can rule out case control. Take a look at cohort study. Cohort study observes a certain group over a long period of time. So these they had 967 Children And they had the parents answered the questionnaire. So there's a certain group, 967 kids under three. The same ones filled it out in 1997 as 2002. That's an observation over a five-year period. I would say we have a winner with cohort. Study. The second part of this question asks us about what lurking variables were identified in the article. So the lurking variable, remember lurking variables and explanatory variable that could affect the response variable. So basically it is something else other than the watching of tv that could affect Children's behavior. That's what we're looking for, that's what we're looking for them to to recognize in the article. So, the article tells us that some other things that could affect Children's behavior would be cultural differences and parent education level. This is right near the end of the article. It's about the third paragraph from the bottom, um, and also the actually, that's it. So they only recognize the cultural differences in parent education level. I'm sure that there are many other lurking variables that we could have identified. But that's all that the author of the article identified. All right, great job, have a fabulous day.


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