For this question, We will be discussing a little bit about identifying ancestral traits. And really quickly uh we should be familiar with what an ancestral trait is. This is a trait that was once shared by a common ancestor and it has been passed down throughout different evolutionary lineages. And then it might have changed or modified sense where therefore would be in a derived traits. But we can all trace it back to a common ancestor that had this trait and it was passed down and found in some version we're very similar or maybe even the same version in our different species. So that is our understanding of ancestral traits and there are a few different ways to identify it. So let's work for these interruptions and see what makes sense interruption A is determining which traits are found. So we're determining traits we can find and fossil ancestors. And a fossil is just a preserved organism that hasn't fully decomposed because it's uh it's remains existed somewhere without oxygen and was able to be preserved and found in these hardened rock states. But we can still see lots of different information from these fossilized organisms. And this is a very useful way if we have a fossil at hand. Oftentimes we don't have a fossil at hand. But if we do, we can make lots of observations. Uh you use carbon dating, these sorts of things to see how old it is and then find if these traits are similar to certain organisms that we can observe today and with other relevant information, we can make a good assessment. So this is a good answer. So let's put check mark there. But let's just make sure there's nothing else that jumps out at us is also being true about identifying ancestral traits. B is using an ouch group which even answer this question, we need to know what an out group is because it doesn't tell us. So we have to have some information already. So an out group is we're looking at some sort of evolution where we have a common ancestor and different organisms branch off. So then if you here we have a Mhm. I don't know. We have to draw things explicitly here. We have a different oval. It all came from the same round circle and then this one maybe it's more like this and then if one that is really big, who knows? Doesn't really matter. So we're looking at these different evolutionary branches. Right? So we see a divergence here divergence here. We can we can consider in our group to be associated with this phenomenon. So our group can be a lineage that is closely related to the end group. Right? But it branches off from the end group before it's based on the evolutionary tree. So what this tells us is if we're looking at a particular lineage, right, Let's say that we're looking at some organism and if we go way down the line. So that's what I'm trying to do here to find some sort of common trait or ancestral trade that we're discussing now and don't worry about my shapes are anything. I'm not trying to show evolutionary changes. I'm just trying to show that there's branching. So if we are just looking at some group here, we can follow this species here. See that there's an association can go up more and then we can keep on going until we get to the common ancestor. Who said, hey, we're sure a common ancestor, we can make it all the way up to the top. Let me see this uh line that we're following here. Right? So this is the end group. This is what we consider ourselves with. But actually we could look at, So again, this spread is in group. We could look at this part that branches out here and blue. And then, you know it from here. We can see here and here some branching, some branching, some branching. So we can consider all this an intergroup, potentially. But if we're looking at specific trait that only exists and these organisms, we should we could look at the out group here, which has a common ancestor and it just branches off and goes in different directions besides this red that were concerning ourselves with here. So this could be the out group. If the red is the organisms are groups that were concerning ourselves with. So we can definitely is an out group to try and find uh ancestral traits because maybe they have a different version, Maybe it's not a derived traits, they lost the traits along the way, Something else happened. But this could be more useful information because we see there's some common ancestor and that they branched off at some point. So they are there's some relation there essentially. So that can also be very useful. So let's put a check mark there and scroll down, make some more room. Because we are flying through this answer option C. Is using a lineage that is closely related to in group. So this sounds very much to me like the out group, it's a similar way of saying it. So I think this is literally saying very much the same thing as interruption B. Because what other in groups would be very closely related to the uh group have to be the out groups. Those are very closely related. So again that's saying the same thing. So it sounds good in my book. Now we have answer option d examining the development of traits, which just common sense will tell us that of course this is going to be the case because cheilletz are traits can change over time. They can become derived traits where they have a very common beginning and then they can change as things go on. So for example, some animals will continue to have a tail from the original organism. If you have the first vertebrates where we have the spine and some semblance of a tail, potentially some organisms will go to have a longer tail. Some organisms will grow to not have a tail like humans. Right? If we came from monkeys, but we lost the tail along the way. And that was just a longer cock six uh you know, vertebral column segment. So we can look at how trace developed from time. And this will help us go back to where they share commonality. So of course, that makes sense, which means that everything is true. So all of the above answer option E. Is, of course the correct answer, which makes perfect sense for this particular question given everything that is presented thus far.