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13. The pKa for the acids A and B are given below:Acidic protonAciclic prexonAcidic proionOHpKa =pKapKaor I0 or 20(8 pts) Explain the acidity difference between com...

Question

13. The pKa for the acids A and B are given below:Acidic protonAciclic prexonAcidic proionOHpKa =pKapKaor I0 or 20(8 pts) Explain the acidity difference between compound A and B (as part of your explanation you should fully depict the conjugate bases}(3 pts) Circle the pKa value thal you could predict € would be (6, 10 or 20)

13. The pKa for the acids A and B are given below: Acidic proton Aciclic prexon Acidic proion OH pKa = pKa pKa or I0 or 20 (8 pts) Explain the acidity difference between compound A and B (as part of your explanation you should fully depict the conjugate bases} (3 pts) Circle the pKa value thal you could predict € would be (6, 10 or 20)



Answers

Write down the equilibria to which the following $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ and $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{b}}$ values refer: $(\mathrm{a}) \mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{b}}$ for methylamine; (b) $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ values for the conjugate acids of 1,3 -propanediamine; (c) $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ for triethylammonium ion; (d) $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{b}}$ for benzylamine; (e) $\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm{a}}$ for the conjugate acid of I -butylamine.

Okay. This problem is asking us to analyze these compounds and order them in order of decreasing acidity. So if I have three compounds total, that means that number one is going to be the most acidic. And number three is gonna be the least acidic because again, remember, decreasing the city. So, looking at these molecules, briefly, I recognize a trend. I have two carbons and then my manage to two carbons and then my oh, age and then two carbons and then my ch three, otherwise just known as three carbons. Okay, so the difference is between these molecules are the third Adam of each of them, right? I have nitrogen compared to oxygen compared to carbon. Okay, so what are those differences? And those atoms have to do with the overall acidity of these molecules. Okay. It has to do a lot with electro negativity. So electron activity is a trend in the periodic table for different atoms or elements to want to hold onto electrons more so than other atoms. Right? Different atoms are happier having an electron increased electron density than others. So, for example, if I have a quick sketch of a period of table. It's gonna look something like that. We have flooring over here and then we have oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron, etcetera. Right. The electric negativity trend goes in this direction. That means that foreign is going to be the most Electra negative. And then oxygen. And then there are others. But then we have nitrogen and the carbon etcetera. Right. So between these, these three atoms are among these three atoms of these compounds. That means I'm gonna have oxygen be the most Electra negative Adam of these molecules and then have a nitrogen. And then I have carbon. Okay, so again, what do you what does electro negativity have to do with overall acidity of molecules? It has to do a lot with it because when when comparing a cities of different molecules one of the best ways is to look at the contract basis because we're looking at the conjugal bases weaken describe a lot about acidity because theme or stable to conduct a base, the more acidic the contract acid is, and vice versa. The more our started, the least stable contact base contributes to the weaker the acid. Okay, so let's go ahead and look at these conjugal bases and then talk a little bit about the acidity of those country acids again. Okay, so looking at this one, what is the concrete base of this molecule? It's going to be the d protein ation of this next region. I'm gonna have to take off a proton from that nitrogen. So it's gonna look like this ch three seems to and h in which I have one pairs on the nitrogen as well as a negative charge on the nitrogen. Okay, so this is just gonna be a quick aside a question that might arises. Why did that take off the proton associated with this nice gym as opposed to a ha Jin associated with this carbon, for example? It's all just draw that quickly out. That would look like this, in which I have a siege to ch two and then an itch to with a negative charge flash lone parents on that carbon. Okay, so why is this one the preferred to Carnegie base as opposed to this one? And that is because again, election activity differences. So no matter what, whenever we haven't asked it and we want to deep resonated. We're always going to make the most stable congregate pays possible. Okay, this is going to be the most stable Konica base possible. And again, that has to do with electro negativity differences. Because, as you can see, we have a negative charge on this nitrogen, and then the other hypothetical contact base. We have a negative charge on this. Carbon negative charges on nitrogen are much more favorable than negative charges on carbon. And that is simply because nitrogen is more electro negative. Carbon and nitrogen wants to have electrons more so than carbon does. Because it's more Electra negative. That means that this is going to be the most stable, constipated, a k a. The only contact base of that of that molecule it. So that's why we're gonna keep this one and erase this one. Okay, so moving on this is gonna be my conjugal base, and I'll compare that to my ethanol. Or at least the Kandahar base of ethanol. Case of the Congo Basin of Ethanol is gonna look like this. I'm gonna have ch three, stage two and again, I'm losing this proton. Okay? And again, we're losing that proton as opposed to a proton in this carbon simply because oxygen is more electro negative. Carbon. It's happier having that *** charges. And carbon is okay. So comparing these two each two to each other. I see that I have a negative charge on an oxygen compared to a negative charge on a nitrogen. So which one is going to be the more stable contact base? It's going to be this one. Okay. Why? Because oxygen is more Electra negative than our next Jim Wright. Oxygen wants to have electron density around it. More so, the nitrogen, It's happier having those electrons around it, then Estrogen, Is that What is that? That's why this is the most stable congregate base. That means that its conjugate acid, my ethanol, is going to be the most acidic. It's gonna be the strongest asset of these two molecules. At least, case that means that so far this is number one, okay? And then moving on to this carbon compound, my propane that's gonna look like this. I'm gonna have my ch three stage two and again. The country base of them is gonna be my siege to with a minus Charge on the carbon. OK, so why is this one. Um, the conjugal base. Okay. And how does that compare to the other ones? This one is actually going to be the strongest contra bass slash the less stable Konica base. I mean, it's gonna be the weakest acid again because of carbon is the least Elektronik. It doesn't want those electrons at all. Okay? It can have his electrons, but it's not very happy, right? Because it wants to relieve itself of that negative charge because it's not Electra negative. It's not as electron active as this oxygen, for example. Okay, so that means that this is going to be the least stable conjugal base. I mean, it's going to be the least acidic, Alex for the country acid. Okay, so that's gonna be number three, and this is gonna be number two. Okay, so we have 12 and 31 is the most acidic. Three is the least acidic. Okay. And now we're going to describe the overall basis cities of that conjugal base free to them. It's all do this part in green. Okay, so in green, I'm trying to discover the increasing acidity, increasing basis city of these country bases. Okay, so that means that number one is going to be the least basic, and number three is going to be the most basic. Okay, so, again, this has to do with election activity. Oxygen being the most Electra negative is the most stable in this form. And by most able, I mean leaf basic. Whereas the negative charges carbon is unstable. Right? Because carbon is the least, Electra negative. It doesn't want those electrons at all. That means that this is going to be the least stable, meaning it's going to be the most basic. Okay, so that means that this one is gonna be number three. This one in the middle of my eighth oxide is gonna be number two, and then this one hopes are number one, and then this one will be number two, okay? And that all has to do with differences and electro negativity. Okay. And whenever we're starting with with that, just look at PK differences, and then we can move on from there.

This question is pretty straightforward. If we know the two concentrations, the weak acid and the weak base, then pH will be equal to PK of formic acid. We can look that up in the back of the book today is 1.8 times tend the negative four. So we'll take the negative log of it to get the P K A plus the log of the base concentration, which is thesis odium form eight, divided by the acid concentration, which is formic acid, and we get 3.59 So if we're gonna have a ratio of acid to base that gives us a pH 0.5 units higher than this on the Ph is going to be 4.9 That will be equal to the PK a plus the log of the ratio of base toe acid. Do a little bit of algebra, and we get a base toe acid ratio of 2.21 or take the reciprocal. The question is asking for it the acid to base ratio and we get 0.45

All right. Today we'll be doing Chapter 16 problem 16 from chemistry, the Central Science, the 14th edition by Brown. And today we will be be given either broth, um, Laurie acid or a base an axe to find its contradict base or acid. So the general definition of Bronson Larry Acid is a pro tongue donor, and the base is a proton, except er So, too get a conjugated base for mitt acid. You, Jess it subtract a hydrogen from the original acid. And to get a base, you just add a hydrogen to Ruthie Original base. And that's how you get the either the conjugal conjugated bass or the conjure git acid. And so, for part A, they give you an acid, and they actually find its conjure git base. So for each c O. H to fight its conned, you get base. We're going to subtract a hydrogen. So we're going to subtract the hydrogen closest to the oxygen that easily lost. And since we're taking away, a hydrogen is going to make her overall molecule now negative to the second part of part a. His each p o for two minus and to get its contra get base. We're goingto from Move that hydrogen and so therefore obp Oh, for certain penis. So the acid was that? Each piece for two minutes and it's country get based is the Pio for three penis part B. They gave us a base and then it asking for its congregate asked. So we start off with s O for two minus. And to get its congregant acid, we have to add a hydrogen. So tad the hydrogen. We will just do us as though four and in wolves subtract one minus isn't so, therefore the only minus one. And then for the next one, we have that each ch three in each too. And once again to make a confident acid Atta, atta, hydrogen and hydrogen is going to be added to the nitrogen to till in pera of electrons on the nitrogen. And therefore we're gonna have see hate three in each three And since we added a hydrogen, which is a plus, I am we're going to now make the whole entire nature thing that a positive charge. Thank you

For option E considering before Ling reaction, we have ammonia in which loses a proton to form ammonia sign ight, I accept that Lost brought on and formed hydrogen cyanide, the congregate asset formed by the addition off each positive to the base. It's formed by removal off each positive from the acid dear for an itch for positive will act as a brown state asset by seeing negative is the brown state beasts. For option B, the water will act as Brown State glory asset on Dhe. See, it's three and will act as a Bronstein glory base for auctions. See, the acid will be acted by Milton Weak ass it that this S C O H via LeBron state base will be acted by at sea or negative.


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