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The clcctronic configurarions of four clemcnts arc givcn as undcr: (I) $1 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{p}^{5}$ (II) $1 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{p}^{4}$ (III) $1 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{p}^{3}$ (IV) $1 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 2 \mathrm{p}^{6 \mathrm{i}} 3 \mathrm{~s}^{2} 3 \mathrm{p}^{1}$ Which of rhe following arrangemcnts gives thc corrcct ordcr in rerms of increasing clectroncgariviry of the clcments? (a) $\mathrm{III}<\mathrm{II}<\mathrm{IV}<\mathrm{I}$ (b) $\mathrm{II}>\mathrm{III}>\mathrm{I}>\mathrm{TV}$ (c) $\mathrm{IV}<\mathrm{III}<\Pi<\mathrm{I}$ (d) $I<$ II $<I I I<\Pi V$

Mm. Hi, welcome to question number 42. In this question, you want to know if we have 25 micrograms of c. 21 age, 30 oh two, We want to know how many moles that is and then how many molecules that represents. So to do this, we are going to need the molar mass of this substance. So we're going to add 21 carbons to the molar mass of 30 hydrogen to the molar mass of two oxygen and I get 314 0.45 So the Mueller mass 3 14 0.45 Of course that would be grams per mole. Right, So I'm going to use this information set up a little bit of dimensional analysis here. First thing I need to do is to get my micrograms two g. So I know that there are one times 10 to the sixth micrograms of anything in one g. Now I can use my molar mass. So there are 314.45 g of C. 21. Age 30 oh two in every mole of the substance. Mhm. Notice I put the grams in the denominator so that they will cancel. So the only unit I have remaining now is moles. So I can go ahead and calculate my answer here. And I'm going to round it to two significant figures since 25 only had two and I get eight point oh times 10 to the negative eighth of the C. 21. Age 30 oh two. Okay, the next thing I want to do then, so let me circle that. That is our first answer. That is the number of moles. Eight times 10 to the negative eight moles. Next thing we want to do is figure out how many molecules this is. So starting with my number of moles eight times 10 to the negative eight moles of C. 21 H 30 02 We need to use of God Rose number because we know there are avocados number of particles in one mole of anything. So six point oh 22 times 10 to the 23rd. That is avocados number. Okay, molecules of the C 21 H 30 02 in every mole of the C 21 H 30 02 What? All right, so mobile cancel and I get a number in number of molecules again rounding the two significant figures. I get 4.8 times 10 to the 16th molecules of C 21 age 30 oh two. So that is the answer to the second part of this question. Thank you so much for joining me.

This question now you just It says if one off the test subjects is randomly selected, find the probability that the subject did not use marijuana. Find the probability of the subject that he did not use marijuana. These are the total subjects who did not actually use marijuana. These are truly negative. These are the ones who are negative and who have also tested negative. But these are the ones who are negative but who have falsely been tested positive. So 24 plus 1 54 is 1 78 1 78 by 300. This is the probability that we want. And do we think the result affect the general population rate off subjects who do not use marijuana? I think the result is somewhat low for people who do not use marijuana. By the way, this value turns out to be 0.59 something zero point Faith Night. And this is my answer

So we have a question about hypothesis testing and uh this problem is introducing us to um a proportion. So we are given a proportion from 2001. That said that 10.2% of high school students had tried marijuana for the first time before the age 13, um uh of an educational program went into effect. And they're hoping that this educational program would reduce that proportion. So if we were to set up a null and alternate hypothesis for this scenario for the proportion p, which will be our parameter for as the proportion of students who have tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 are null hypothesis would be that um oops, I started writing you, there are no hypothesis would be that that proportion hasn't changed from the proportion that was known earlier. So we'll keep that 10.2% as the null hypothesis for the parameter. Now, the alternative hypothesis would be that they're hoping that this educational program has reduced and lowered that proportion, so that's what they are going to be testing for now, for part B, we are told that uh suppose the data indicate that that null hypothesis shouldn't be rejected. That would mean that they got a sample that really wasn't low enough and far enough away from the 10.2% to warrant a rejection of the null hypothesis. That has to be our assumption and our evidence just wasn't strong enough. So, in that case, since we are not rejecting the null hypothesis, our conclusion would be just that just that that, you know, there's not convincing evidence to say the educational program decreases, regardless, in this case, decreased the proportion of students trying marijuana. Okay, so now, for part C, we are told now that the facts of the matter are that the proportion of high school students um actually was 9.5% which is lower than the null hypothesis, which means that the alternative hypothesis is actually correct and we didn't go with it, right, So we're wrong, and that means that we have made an error. So whenever you um fail to reject the null hypothesis, you don't go with the alternative, but the alternative is true. This means that you've made a type two error. Now, the other part of this question is also saying um are actually note that's it. Okay, so there you have it type two error.

Okay. What we want to go ahead and do is, um we have the following graph, and I'll show you the graph in a minute. Um, that shows, um, the percent of eight, 10th and 12th grade, um, graters who have used marijuana in their lifetimes. Um, and what we want to do is for each of them we want to find the average annual rate of change in percent of, and we want to do it for, um, eighth grade over some time periods. And they wait 10th graders and 12th graders, and we want to kind talk about the similarities and differences. And so here the trends, the bottom line is tthe e eighth graders. Um, then we have the 10th graders. Then we have the 12th graders, and this graph is from 2007 to 2013. And so this actually shows percents from 2007 to a 2013. And this is 10% 20% 30% and 40%. Um, And so, um, let's go ahead. And, um, let me go ahead and hit some values here for you, so we can actually see some values. Um, better. So l'm doing is Dismas is pretty good. It lets me click on the points, and you can see what they're actually are. Um, and so what this is telling me, is a pier 42% of 12th graders in the year 2007 had used marijuana. Um, And then, um, whereas in 2007 only 14.2% of eighth graders had used marijuana. Um, and so what we want to do is we want to find the average annual rate of change in percent of eighth graders from the first time from 2000 and 72 um, 2010. Okay, in so in 2010 it was 17.3% of eighth graders minus the 14.2, um, percent. And then divide by three. Cause there's her three years difference. And so there This tells me there's a one point 03 percent increase per year in eighth graders who said they have used marijuana, and then what we're gonna do, um, is now we want to do it for 2000 and 10 to 2013. Um, and so 2013 was 16.5 minus, um, the 2010 which was 17.3, and there's a three year difference. And so this is a negative point for 3% per year. So that means in the years between 2010 and 12 13 there was actually a 130.43% decrease in eighth graders who said per year who said they used marijuana and then we want to do from 20 um, 7 2002 2013. And so we have the 17.3 minus the 4.14 point two over six years, and there is a 0.52% per year increase. Okay, so that is, um, for eighth graders. And now we want to do it for 10th graders and we want to do the same years. We want to go from 2007 to 2010 and so we have for them. We have 33.4 minus a 31 um, over three, and this was a 0.8% increase per year. We want to go from 2010 clips. 2010 to 2013. Um, and this was 35.8 minus the 31 divided by the three years. Um, and this once again, is an 8% of 80.8% per year increase. Um, And now we're gonna go from the entire 2007 to 2013 to the entire six years, and we get the 35 0.8, um, minus the 31 over six, and once again, a 60.8% per year increase. So it looks like for 10th grade, um is pretty consistent increase. And so now we want to do it for the 12th graders, and we want to do the exact same. So we want to go from 2027 the year 2007 to 20 10 and we have 43.8, minus the 41.8 divide by the three years and 0.67% per year increase. And then we, um, go from 2010 to 2013 and we have 45.5, minus the 43.8. Divide by three in a 0.57% per year increase. And then we go through the entire six years. So we go from 2007 to 2013 and so we have 45.5, minus the 41.8 and divide by six, and that's 60.62% per year. Okay, um and so what? I'm gonna go ahead and do is go ahead and go to the next slide and kind of put this all in kind of perspective. So this is eight. Um, this is Ted, and this is 12. And we have from 20 2007 to 2010 2010 to 2013 and then 2007 to 2013. Um and so we had one point. 03% per year. We had a negative 0.43 percent in a 0.52 in 10th grade. It was consensus, it of 0.8 percent per year. And in 12th grade, 0.67 um, 0.57 and 0.62%. Okay. And so let's talk about the similarities. Um, and so we can also, um, So the similarities, um, or that, um, except for this eighth grade. Um, So the tent and 12th graders, um, have a pretty much consistent, um, percent increase, cause all of these air about 0.6 and these air 0.8 increase, um um, per year for the years. Um 22,007 to 20 13. Um, there are pretty consistent percent increase per year for those years from 2007 to 2013 wth e eighth graders. Um, but the eighth graders, um, have a huge increase. Um, in usage from 2000 and seven to 2010 of 1.3% per year, um, and then drops off to a negative 0.43%. Um, per year, um, from 2010 to 2013. Um And so, um, we do know in the years from 2010 to 2013 we pretty much had legalization of marijuana. Um, And so, um, why the drop off could be because, um, for eighth graders, um, it might b'more for the thrill of doing something illegal, and so that legalization of marijuana might have kind of, um, deterred them. Um, it's not kind of fun anymore. Also in this time also came vaping. Um and so that could have been a distraction as well for eighth graders. So, um, those were just kind of some things I saw. You could probably add more to it. Um, and this is kind of really, um right here is kind of a little bit more of a subjective explanation. Um, so you can kind of feel in with your own thoughts


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