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2358. You continue your studies of snails, The woodland were moved t0 a grassland habitat, population from question 57 enclosed You release [OO snails of cach pheno...

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2358. You continue your studies of snails, The woodland were moved t0 a grassland habitat, population from question 57 enclosed You release [OO snails of cach phenotype in an study_area and measure Survival after two weeks of bird prechoiop Phenotype of juveniles at start of survival after bird study (from Q57) solid brown predation (%) 195 10 brown & green stripes 409 60 solid green 198 50 (e Estimate the fitness of each phenotype and the mean fitness for the population in a grassland habit

23 58. You continue your studies of snails, The woodland were moved t0 a grassland habitat, population from question 57 enclosed You release [OO snails of cach phenotype in an study_area and measure Survival after two weeks of bird prechoiop Phenotype of juveniles at start of survival after bird study (from Q57) solid brown predation (%) 195 10 brown & green stripes 409 60 solid green 198 50 (e Estimate the fitness of each phenotype and the mean fitness for the population in a grassland habitat. b) Estimate the expected frequency of each phenotype after one generation in the grassland. In calculating your answer,assume that surviving adults mate randomly and all phenotypes are equally fertile:



Answers

Questions $23-25$ In a certain population of rabbits in the midwestern United States, there are two alleles for coat color, brown and white. Brown is dominant, and white is recessive. The frequency of white-colored rabbits is 9$\% .$ Wolves are also present in the area, and rabbits constitute a major portion of their diet. Foxes recognize prey when they do not blend in to the environment.
If the climate were to change so that snow covered the ground much of the time, what change in the population of rabbits would you expect?
(A) The frequency of the white allele would increase.
(B) The frequency of the white allele would decrease.
(C) The frequency of the brown allele would increase.
(D) The population of wolves would decrease and then increase.
(E) The population of wolves would increase and then decrease.

Stay in our problem. The extra information about the wolves and the foxes are not important to finding the Leo frequency. Okay, so the word a little frequency usually sounds pretty scary and it makes us think we have to do some complicated math problems. But we don't frequency. That just means how often does something happen? And what are the A Leal's? Remember when you did punish squares? Okay, you would have the big B's little bees. Okay, The big B's and little bees thes are they Leal's. So if you have a population of rabbits, these are my rabbits. Okay? Some of them are gonna be big. Be big B. Some were gonna be big, be little B, and some will be a little be little b We're not concerned about how many are little. Be little. Be maybe a little B or big be Bigby. We just want to know the alil. So how many a little bees do we half And then how many big B's do we have? So when we look at the information, what are we given? We're told that we have brown rabbits and Brown is dominant, so we're gonna give that Big B is a letter. We have white rabbits. Why is recessive so? That's gonna be little B. We know that the Alil frequency for white is nine. Her sense. Hey, remember changing percentages into whole numbers. You just move your decimal 0.2 places 12 to the left. Fill in that zero. So 0.9 would be the number. Okay, You don't really have to change this to understand this part. But it's good that you understand this math so we can figure out what are well, how many brown do we have with the Alil frequency? Further brown rabbit. OK, so in a population, how much is the total? The total population is always, ah 100%. So the total population is 100% the legal frequency for the recessive, the white. How many little bees total do we have? That's going to be 9%. So what? What is left over is what's brown, what is dominant. So you subtract 100% minus what is white, and we're going to get the brown, which is 91% hes. The Leo frequency for brown is 91% but we don't see this number in any of our choices. So changing that percentage back to a number Here's your decimal point. After the one, you move it to places to the left you get zero point 91 Rounding that, we see the answer zero 0.9 and that is our answer. The little frequency for brown. So don't get confused. You do not need to worry about big be little b Bigby Bigby Little be little b We're worried about only big bees and little bees. Don't worry about the different combinations when you're

Mm solution. Well solution A with absolute linkage with absolute linkage. Yeah. There will be no recombinant Virginie look. No recombinant. Hello journey. The FN inherited bandit. Everything inherited. Yeah. Banded and yellow Alice. Yellow bellies. Mm Together on one chromosome. Mhm. On one chromosomes from the bandit. Yeah. From yeah. Bend it. Yellow bedroom. Yellow. Permanent and UNb ended. Yes and down ali and brown wheels. Mhm. Together on human nervous grow mushrooms from the unbending brown parent. From that unintended. Yeah braun parent without recombination. Mhm. Without rec combination. Yeah. Only F went gametes. Yeah. Mhm. Will contain. Yeah. Yeah. Only these 2-led combination. Okay. To a lilic Mhm combinations mm In equal proportions in equal proportions. Therefore the F. To dress crossbow johnny have to test. Cross progeny will be you want to bended. Yes. Yellow. Oh and you want to blended brown. Mhm ruby with independent assortment. Yeah. With independent assortment. Mhm. The progeny evil. Yeah. The progeny will be yeah mm. One food bend it. Yellow. 14 bend it. Mhm. Young 14 unfriended. Yellow and one food UNb ended. You don't. Okay. Yeah. Okay. Yeah. See 30 component. Yeah. To do this frequency. Yeah. Is 20%. So each Of the two classes of recombinant progeny. Yeah. Your classes two. The community. Okay. Mhm. You can within progeny two classes of recombinant progeny must 10%. Yeah the recombinant are banded bandit. Yeah. Yeah. Brown and unbending yellow and and yeah mended yellow and two classes. Good judges of Yeah. Non recombinant are 80% after progeny. 80% cryogenic. Yeah. So each class must be great class. You must be 40%. Oh and the non recombinant are banded. Yeah. Yellow. Mhm. Yeah and Mhm. Cool. Unb ended brown. Okay. 40% banded yellow, 40% 40%. Unbending. Unbending plant. 10%. Mhm. Bandit blonde mm. Mhm. Mhm. Mhm. 10 person. Mhm. Unbending. Yeah. Yellow. I wouldn't know.

For this question will be taking a look at the polio frequencies from the previous question Number 13 where we looked at stripe shelf snails and on striped shell snails and compared their mortality rates. Now we'll be looking at the olio frequencies for both. And the data that you see here, the 756 173 come from the table in question 13. Now we will be using the Hardy Weinberg equation with our of variables the substituted in. So we have capital s signifying striped, and that is the dominant alil and then cursive. Ask for a lower case s signifying the on striped shells, which is the recess civil you. So we have substituted that into our hardy Weinberg equation that we'll be using that in just a moment. And then we also have our total, which is just the addition of 750 plus 673 which gives us the total number of individuals that we would be looking at. So to determine the alil frequency, we would want to first start off with our un striped snails because our on strike snails will be, um ho Mose August recess if we know that for effect. Because if it is a recess of Alil, there must be two for that feeling type to be expressed. So also, we can add in one more hardy Weinberg equation. Here it is, the capital s plus lower case US equals one. That one will be used first. And then we will use this one second. So going back to what we were just talking about, we will take our 673 are striped snails, and we will plug that into this equation here. But first, we must plug it in as a frequency instead of a number. So we need to divide 673 by the total, which is 14 123. And that gives us for 0.473 and we will plug that in for our lower case us. So that means that we will get for our uppercase us capital s. We would get 0.5 to 7. All right, so now, knowing this, we can use the second equation that we have to determine the ah Leo frequency for our hetero zegas snails. All right, so in this equation. We know that the hedgerows, I guess, is determined by this term right here. So we will bring it down. And we have two times the legal frequency for our capital s Eliel, which is right here times the olio frequency for our lower case, Asa Leo, which is right here. So now we just convert that into the numeric form plug in for our variables. There will be two times, 0.5 to 7. Time, 0.473 And now we will do a quick multiplication, and we see that we have a frequency of zero point 499 That is for our hetero zaius. Um, snails. So that's good. Now has determined the olio frequency for our stripes nails. So I'm just gonna double check here and just check to see the frequency of dominant. Well, so, yes, we will. Um, we actually have it because I was thinking that we might have to do the exact number of individuals, but no, we have already found everything that we need. The final thing that we must do is determine the number of hetero zygotes. So we have 0.499 That is the alil frequency for the hetero zygotes. So all we have to do is multiply that by the total. We are not looking for the number of individuals that are homeless, I guess dominant or homeless, I guess recessive were So we have these two as our answers already. They're just looking for a little frequency. And now we will take this 0.499 which is for our had a rose. I goes and we're multiplying this by our total 1423. And that should give us 710. So that is good. So now we know that 710 individuals, our header rows, I guess four header was, I guess dominant for that striped, you know, type. So 710 hetero zegas dominant. So 700 tenants Headers, I guess Dominant of for striped, you know, type. And that will also be one of our answers. So to put it all together, let's just write it all down here we see that the dominant Leo frequency, the 0.5 to 7 process of illegal frequency is 0.473 and the hetero zygotes so it would be one dominant and one recessive equals 710 individuals, so those will be your answers for number 14.

So when it comes to questions like this, what I like to do is break down all the information that we've been given so we can see from the question that purple is dominant toe white. So let's use ah, any letter we can use any arbitrary letter in this case, we're gonna use the letter B to represent the, um, dominant polio. So let's use upper case be to represent Domine and for the recessive. Let's use a lower case be. And the question tells us that this upper case be is, um what codes for the purple trade in the flower. And this lower case is, well, codes for white. And this is dominant to this. No, What we can also see is, um, with this information, we know that the homeless Vegas dominant Gino type is upper case be and upper case be because Hamas, I guess, refers to having two of the same polio and dominant is the dominant earlier. So same of the dominant. So it's uppercase be up kids be now when it comes to the headers I kissed. Hetero means different, so we know that it will have one of this and one of this since they're both different. Illegal? So could do a protest B and lower case be for the homeless, I guess. Recesses well. It's similar toe. What we did for the home was like is dominant where we know that it's the same a Leo, and it's going to be the recess herbal wheels. So we represent that with two over case bees. Now this is the genotype. That's a term that I mentioned earlier. Gino Type just refers to the actual genetic composition of it, whereas the fetal type is the physical appearance. So since the purple is dominant to the white, we can determine the Gina types from this information that we've been given. So we know that the home was Agnes dominant, obviously purple. It has to polio's coding for purple. So let's right that don't worry. And the hetero Zegas has one purple Ulliel and a white Julio. But the purple is dominant to the white, so we know that this will also appear to be purple with the homeless. Iger successive. We know that it will be white because it just has to believe is that code for white and nothing else. If it had one purple a Leo That would be enough to make the flower appear purple as we see in the header Zika's. So now that we have all this information, what air? We actually looking at it? Well, we're looking at the results from a cross between a purple plant and a white plant. And the question also tells us that the purple plant had a white parent, which means that it will have one white Khalil, as seen in the hedgerows. August Gino type. Why is that? Because it had a white parent, which means that the parent had to pass on one of its a Leo's to the offscreen. So we know that the purple flower that will be looking at here is hetero Xigris. So we can just write that down here. This has become clear to you in a little bit. We're putting them like this. Okay, these air, the two folios of one of the parents in the cross that we're looking at now the other parent is awake plant, and we know that there's only one type of genotype for white plants, as we can see here from the home of, uh, Xigris recessive and that will be two of the lower case bees. So let's put that down here. One lower case. Be one lower case. You might be wondering why I'm doing this, and the reason is because I'm making a pun it square. Now. What opponents square is is a grid that will let us determine the probability off the offspring's Jude. So we'll do that in just a little bit here. Now, to make upon its where you do this, you put one parents, a leal's on the top and one parents a Leo's on the site, and you combine the two basically in each square. So here we have the opportunity, as seen from here, and one lower case be right, and it's the same thing down here. It's the opportunity be from for up here in the lower case, be from the side and over here we just have to lower his bees because it's one from here, one through. It's the same thing. Get one from the top and one from the summit. Now, what does this tell us? Well, it tells us that 50% have the probability of being Hatteras. Avis, right? Because half of them 50% headers. ICUs as thief. You know, type shown here, right? And 50% have the probability of being home was August recess it? Yes, In here. Okay. So what are we asked to look for? No, we were asked to determine how many of the resulting plans will be purple. Right? And as we can see from here, the probability of all off the offspring being purple is 50%. So that is 50 percent purple. Because all of the purples are all of the hetero. Xigris will appear as purple since they have a purple fino time. So it's 50% her full and also obviously 50% white. The questions not asking for that. So this is your answer.


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