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Which Ie A4IcIMC ILI ul discasc indicailce tllc Gal J wuchi Gcaltucuccumngl IOIAlily tulc Incideuce ! ulL picvuIcec Foth (} Jd (b)alc coneciWnichi TollowM rodent naenBd cramdic n > VencIC~fca IIeThe Iccutinn vhr tlic Athozen Ivc-wncn nol € uSLn ditcax REnotuhzblal VccolvchicicTransducuionhorrcnt ccncirin-ICi nvolves Lacler CKI? HN"Icngs DNA frmi their ~uT cundings occurs HcI bacleriophagc trunstets DNA oa new bucleria buth (a) and (6) :IC cOlTecl (a} and (c) Arc COHICCI process that i

Which Ie A4IcIMC ILI ul discasc indicailce tllc Gal J wuchi Gcaltucuccumngl IOIAlily tulc Incideuce ! ulL picvuIcec Foth (} Jd (b)alc coneci Wnichi TollowM rodent naen Bd cramdic n > VencIC ~fca IIe The Iccutinn vhr tlic Athozen Ivc-wncn nol € uSLn ditcax R Enotu hzblal Vccol vchicic Transducuion horrcnt ccncirin-ICi nvolves Lacler CKI? HN"Icngs DNA frmi their ~uT cundings occurs HcI bacleriophagc trunstets DNA oa new bucleria buth (a) and (6) :IC cOlTecl (a} and (c) Arc COHICCI process that involves ccuubining Pcnelic maierial of (wo dilietent organisms knowt gene therapy PCR Recambinant DNA Genetic serecning the righi = thc Jnswet 0n MATCHING SECTION match lhc stulement Jcft. typical signs and Symptoms Cises decace nnmbec incidence rate endemic disease populations constant level prcecnI Proxlromal Phase nonspeeilic = symploms devclop tite belore the first nonspecific symptoms Illness Phase Incubation Period ~ulu



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Rollin Hotchkiss and Julius Marmur studied transformation in the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (R. D. Hotchkiss and J. Marmur. 1954. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences $40: 55-60) .$ They exam ined four mutations in this bacterium: penicillin resistance $(P),$ streptomycin resistance $(S),$ sulfanilamide res istance $(F),$ and the ability to utilize mann it ol (M). They extracted DNA from strains of bacteria with different combinations of different mutations and used this DNA to transform wild-type bacterial cells $\left(P^{+} S^{+} F^{+} M^{+}\right) .$ The results from one of their transformation experiments are shown here. (TABLE CAN'T COPY) a. Hotch kiss and Marmur noted that the percentage of cotransfor mation was higher than would be expected on a random basis. For example, the results show that the $2.6 \%$ of the cells were transformed into $M$ and $4 \%$ were transformed into $S .$ If the $M$ and $S$ traits were inherited independently, the expected probability of cotransfor mat ion of $M$ and $S(M S)$ would be 0.026 $\times 0.04=0.001,$ or $0.1 \% .$ However, they observed $0.41 \% \mathrm{MScotransformants},$ four times more than they expected. What accounts for the relatively high frequency of cotransformation of the traits they observed? b. On the basis of the results, what conclusion can you make about the order of the $M, S,$ and $F$ genes on the bacterial chromosome? c. Why is the rate of cotransformation for all three genes (M $S F$ ) almost the same as the rate of cotransformation for $M F$ alone?

Hello there students today. We're gonna be answering these three part questions. Let's start with the first part in part A. So far to go about answering this question they are bringing up the F. One plants for assaulting. Mhm. From. Yeah. The cross. Yes. Between. I'm sorry. You heard helping? Yeah. Between bulk. That's not working. Two boys. These embry parents. Yeah. Yeah. Show yeah. Oh. Mhm. The fans and the bands are your A more okay. Yeah. You too. A. Three four B. One B. Two. He'll be very okay. You go back for part A. So for part B. How you go about that? Is that brand? Mhm. Any band? He won? Thank you. Mhm. Okay. Hello. I have my pain. Okay. Band A one is present. Yeah. Oh yeah. The angry. Yeah wines. Yeah. Yeah. So. Okay. Cannot things use. Yeah. Four recombination. Sure. Yeah mapping. For hard to see how we go about that. Okay. Yes it is careful. Okay. Yeah that. Do me have one plant. Okay. Or no curls. Yeah. Yes. Two plates possessing. Mhm. Only creams. Day one. Okay. Four. Yeah. Oops. In A. Three. Mhm. Let's proceed. Okay. Four something. Mhm. Friend. Yeah. To get the table. Yeah. C. D. D. N. A. Yeah. One. Mhm. Mhm. Okay. Just ask me you know this one. Okay. Sure. Do you yeah recognized what? Uh huh. Oh FL. S. L. P. Which? Mhm. Physical. Yeah. Let me face your life. Mhm. Mhm. Yeah. Thank you. And and A. Four. Yeah. Yeah. Mhm. And 82 83 C. G. M. A. Mhm. And this sick king pro recognized. Mhm. Yeah. Yeah. We also have more space recognize, right? Yeah. One car fell. Okay. Yeah. Rich. Okay. He fixed the sea. For which such a plan B. Federal Life. Okay. Mhm. Mhm. That's been good. three. Yeah. Damon. I am. Okay. What? Okay. Yeah. B. Two Linkage. Yeah. Distance. Yeah. Grateful. The time person. And, yep. That is it? Help you found this helpful and please take care. Okay.

So here we're continuing on with our work related to DNA, and we're gonna be taking about that restriction enzymes. So in the fast pothead of the types of plasmids that could be found with the T r a r with superscript on includes the original intact plasma with the eukaryotic gene fragment on like a tick plasmas with other plasma. It's instead of foreign DNA fragments, so moving on to the next part. So given the data that we have, so the lane wanted to have digested plasmids with a single eukaryotic gene fragment in different orientations. So after digestion, delaying one and two hard only to fragments with different molecular weights, whereas Lane three has a digestive plasmid with two eukaryotic gene fragments, so it yields three DNA fragments instead of two because it has to e c o r I cleavage sites

Hi, everyone. My name is Eric. And let's review problem 47. So in this question, they're asking us to describe the process of molecular cloning. Now, molecular cloning is the process where you take your DNA of interest, you insert it in a plasmid, and then you're going to place it in a host to replicate and produce mawr amounts of your DNA of interest. And the process to do that is actually what we're looking for here. So we're looking at four different choices A, B, C and D, and I'll be walking us through what is the correct answer and why. The other answers are not correct. So the first answer is letter A. So let's start with a So they're saying that the foreign DNA and the plasma are cut with the same restriction enzyme, and the DNA is inserted into a gene. So let's start there. So our plasma is a circular piece of DNA, and it's mostly common found inthe e bacteria. So with the plasmid, we're going to cut at specific sites with the restriction enzyme, and that's going to allow us to insert our foreign DNA into the same spot and in the problem. They described it as cutting into the lack Z gene. So by cutting into the lack see Jean, we're actually going to be disrupting this gene. And the legacy gene is responsible for metabolizing lactose. So lactose is a molecule, and Black sea is the gene that allows the host to break down and utilize lactose. So that would be the first part where we're going to be inserting our DNA of interest inside the laxity gene. All right, and then did said that the DNA and the vector are a kneeling, so then that would allow us to make a new plasmid. But instead our DNA of interest will be bonded in the spot where the Lexie should be, all right. And then this plasma is going to be transferred into a bacterial host, and it's going to be selected for using ampicillin, right? So somewhere on this plasmid will be an amp resistant jean, so that allows the bacteria to survive on episode. And so that's how we know if the plasma has been taken up into the bacteria. The ones that survive on AMP Resistance is what we're looking for, and once we have it, into a bacterial host. We're going to be able to produce more plasmids. I mean, with our DNA of interest. So it's going to replicate and produce our plasma with our DNA of interest and how we can tell that our DNA has been taken up into the correct spot is that if we introduce what is called X gal X gal is similar to lactose, so X gal is actually the artificial version of black toas. So by introducing X gal, if the bacteria cannot metabolized X gal, then that means that our bacteria have successfully taken up before and DNA and therefore our molecular cloning is successful. So part a following those steps is true. The answer would be part egg. But to further explain, let's look at B, c and D. So and be already the first step is the nature ring using high heat, so that is not correct. We don't de nature. We have to restriction enzyme cut first, so be is not an answer. Let's look at sea, so see they're going to cut. Okay, so that's a good part. They're starting with cutting, and they inserted into the plasmid. Then they allowed to kneel. But then the thing is here, is that they They said at the end here that it shows an inability to synthesize X gal. We're not synthesizing X gal. We're introducing X gal into the environment. We're giving it X gal so that we can see if it metabolizes it or not. So because we're not synthesizing X gal, see is not the correct answer either. And finally, let's look at D. So in part D, they're saying that they want to introduce it into a viral vector. And that is not part of molecular cloning. Because typically, we're going to be focusing it in a bacterial host, right? And additionally, we're not synthesizing X gal. So that is also another reason why we're not picking answer D. So the process of molecular cloning the answer is a thanks for watching. And I'll see you next time. Bye bye

Todo because in 25 sex about him, the streams recalling one where they talk, possibly everyone, the other stream that's finding a new and then you have to and the running out How are you? Locate the locus for transferring assistant. So first you want have to to the curve aren't for Argentine a key or the resistant kings. And then, after you select for this one, you're one than no. Which rancor is closest to the resistance gene, too resistance. It's closer, assistant. So after that you would have to perform a second cross between your other crossings on and the higher delinking the closer things to your friends. You're kind of selling resistance and dang Oscar, you do that. You do the other one other men, I should say, for example, Alan Ing, then pulling. If you have these and you find out by see for example, having has a higher linkage, then you and no Al Anin is closer to years of sneaking by. You wouldn't know on which signed if it was on the left side, on the right side, so they would have to do another crossing. For example, will Grace go go to Makkah said. And losing. And then you would end up having to compare these with your avenue, improving one and then based on the name change. So the higher the linkage, the closer you are to the resistance gene. So saying, for example, in here you find out the loose scene has the higher want.


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