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Ine end point of the litration you can calculate ine numbe of sodium hydroxide delivered from the stoichiometryLEARNING OUTCOMESUnderstand the concepts of an acid-b...

Question

Ine end point of the litration you can calculate ine numbe of sodium hydroxide delivered from the stoichiometryLEARNING OUTCOMESUnderstand the concepts of an acid-base reaction and titration Know what the end point is and how it applies to stoichiometry Determine the acetic acid content in vinegar Demonstrate correct titration technique Use group data to draw conclusion of the best buy" brand of vinegar PRE-LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT ")' = Set up your notebook for this experiment as ex

Ine end point of the litration you can calculate ine numbe of sodium hydroxide delivered from the stoichiometry LEARNING OUTCOMES Understand the concepts of an acid-base reaction and titration Know what the end point is and how it applies to stoichiometry Determine the acetic acid content in vinegar Demonstrate correct titration technique Use group data to draw conclusion of the best buy" brand of vinegar PRE-LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT ")' = Set up your notebook for this experiment as explained in general terms on 8-9 of this manual: Section VII must be set up in your lab pages notebook prior to the lab_ between hydrochloric acid and sodium Write balanced chemical reaction hydroxide: 4.| 1.0253 M sodium hydroxide solution that would be Calculate the volume to neutralize 10.00 mL of 0.0447 M hydrochloric acid solution: required 45



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Consider the following acid-neutralization reactions involving the strong base $\mathrm{NaOH}(a q)$ $$ \begin{aligned} \mathrm{HNO}_{3}(a q)+\mathrm{NaOH}(a q) & \longrightarrow \mathrm{NaNO}_{3}(a q)+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l) \\ \mathrm{HCl}(a q)+\mathrm{NaOH}(a q) & \longrightarrow \mathrm{NaCl}(a q)+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l) \\ \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}(a q)+\mathrm{NaOH}(a q) &-\cdots \mathrm{NH}_{3}(a q)+\mathrm{Na}^{+}(a q)+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l) \end{aligned} $$ (a) By using data in Appendix C, calculate $\Delta H^{\circ}$ for each of the reactions. (b) As we saw in Section $4.3$, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are strong acids. Write net ionic equations for the neutralization of these acids. (c) Compare the values of $\Delta H^{\circ}$ for the first two reactions. What can you conclude? (d) In the third equation $\mathrm{NH}_{4}{ }^{+}(a q)$ is acting as an acid. Based on the value of $\Delta H^{\circ}$ for this reaction, do you think it is a strong or a weak acid? Explain.

All right, guys, We're doing problem one twenty to Chapter five of chemistry Central Science. So we're going to be looking at three acid base reactions. So we're going to use data and appendix e to casually Delta H reach these reactions. So cons let's do this. Member has his log. Delta H Delta H reactant Delta Reaction is a good teacher products myself. Teach of reactions. So Delta H is equal to ooh minus two. Eighty five point eight three. Then you have any other threesome? Minus for forty six twenty two minus minus four six. There are sixty nine point six minus two o six point six six miles to a five point eight three minus for forty six point two, minus negative for sixty nine in point six. Missed two o six. Politics. This is a minus fifty point eight three villages. Ramon, No. Next we're going to want this one, So H is equal to man two. Eighty five point eight three minus four o seven point one minus. That's the value for sixty nine point six. Nice. One. Sixty seven point two. Delta H is going to be equal to men to eighty five. Twenty three. That's for seven point one minus. They got four sixty nine point six miles. One sixty. Seventy two. That's gonna be minus fifty six point one three. The jewels from all. And now we're going to do that again here. So Delta H is equal to minus two eighty five point eight three a reminder to forty point one minus forty six point one nine minus four. Sixty nine. Nine point six on this one, thirty two point five. Oh, are there to H for this is going to be I think that this is going to be a a positive twenty nine point eight. Kill a Jules Ramon. Oh, so now we know this Know that h for direction. So they want us right Net an equation for the reaction of nitric acid and HCL. So remember, and acid base equations you are your net. Ionic is always a plus plus oh, age yield each to oh no for an expert, they want to imprint Delta values for these two reactions And what can we conclude? So you see that the Delta H for the HCL with anyway is my department nice fifty six killjoys promote and the and the Delta H for natural gas of any, which is approximately fifty six killed. Jules. Those Pamela's well, So we can say that when a strong acid react with a strong base, the delta assured destruction is approximately that minus fifty six killer Jules promote. It's in the third equation, and each food, as they're an H four plus is acting as an acid based on values dealt each direction. Do you think this is, you think is a strong at stronger, weak acid? Explain? No. Yes. And if I had two? No. And I would expect this to be you be has to be a weak acid. Yes. And so you can You can think of it this way. So we have. So when you're interacting a strong acid with a shrug when you're interacting a strong acid with a strong base, you're producing a eh up a delta age of minus fifty five for more. But you can see in this reaction the entropy is much smaller than for the first two reactions. So we can. So, based on as so, we can say that we were able to generally say before that when you had a strong acid. A strong base. This is going to have negative fifty six points. You're going, Teo, get this value of minus fifty six. Killer Jules, promote. However, you're in this case, you are reacting me an acid with the base. But you're not getting that minus fifty six killed. Jules. Promoter getting positive. Twenty nine point nine eight killed you for more. So since it's not producing that value, we can assume that this is a weak acid.

And this problem. We're given a lot of information about a base in an acid and asked to calculate the polarity of the asset. To this end, we're gonna use the equation for malaria and a peaceful to number of moles divided by volume and leaders. I noticed that this equation can be written in three different ways. We can solve for polarity, consult for moles, and Ripe says, and the times, um, is equal number of moles. Or we can call for volume and find the volume A sequel to number of Moles by mole Aridity. These will serve you well as you move through these. Now, I'm gonna go to this thing a lot of detail if you're just here for the solution and you want to see the one step shortcut way of Stoke Yama tree pill tree. Um, but I will take the time to explain each step conceptually. So if you want to skip ahead to the end, you can go ahead and do that. So we have, uh, a lot of information about the space over here knows we have volume and the polarity. So we're gonna use that information to find the missing piece that's the number of mulch to our first step is going to be to find the number of malls of anyway. H the reason why we want more than a wage. Because in this reaction, we're told by nature of the reaction that one more of any U. H reacts with one roll of acetic acid so that I can use the multi more ratio to find malls of the feet of Katherine. So notice that would that does is it gives us more of this substance, and with the volume we can then find the polarity that we're after. So that will be. Our final step is to find similarity up the acid history seal, too. So let's start with that. First, I need my volume in leaders. So this is 0.947 leaders. Polarity it serves us to remember, can be written as you're appointing 00 molds for every one leader. I noticed that when I multiply these together, the leaders cancel out nicely and their product is you're a point. You're a point hero who want each night four well, sodium hydroxide. Okay, now recall that we said that for every one more sodium hydroxide. We have one more of acetic acid, so I don't really need to do any math here. I just know that because of this want to one ratio that I have just as many moves of acetic acid as I did sodium hydroxide. No math involved. I just already know the next step. And then now what? I have multi story of acetic acid volume of the Vedic acid. I confined the polarity by the fighting, given the definition, Willard. So I have 0.1894 more divided by the volume, which in leaders his Euro point Nero to 50 leaders motive units of molds divided by leaders. This is equal to 0.7576 mold over leaders, which is the same thing. Moeller and I'm going to round three significant figures, given that I had three significant for years and all of my initial givens with 0.758 look okay, now let's talk about the shortcut. You have a good grip on all of these things. You can kind of conceptual work your way through it all in one go. So let's start with the volume of acid, just as we did at the top. I have this many leaders of nitric acid, so I need to multiply by the polarity of nitric acid you can treat this polarity is a conversion factor. She could write it either with moles in the numerator, leaders in the numerator and the unit that comes before is gonna guide you. I mean, those us to cancel Next. Remember, we had to change substances. We do that using multiple ratio. One more of acetic acid reacts with warm bowl. Sure, I am. Keep writing H in the three. My God. And the problem back there should be any Uhh you don't really know when will the new age. And finally, I can't divide this results by the volume. Remember, that's for what I have, leader. So your small small This whole product gives me multiple acetic acid and I'm gonna divide mulled by leaders Europe with 0 to 50 beaters, acetic acid solution And what that will give me Smalls, former leaders or polarity. All of that is equal to the same 0.758 Moeller. I don't know, it's the same. I basically did the exact same process the whole way down. This is it in one

In this problem, we are told we have acetic acid that dissolves in water .5% of the acid molecules by a nose. Senator Vinegar at 5% CA Castle by Mass. So if we're going to draw some models illustrating the components in the vinegar, including a model for water. So basically the ascetic acid is just going to be in a solution. Let's say we have this speaker of the vinegar and then we can draw a model to show the water in the winter. So let's draw water molecules. So we have water molecules and are just going to draw that as you see the gas and molecules. So we Are told that it's 5% acetic acid by mess. That means that there aren't that many. You can see the gas and molecules among the water molecules. So we can draw maybe one acetic acid molecule and draw a bunch of the water molecules. We want to show that there isn't as much acetic acid compared to water molecules because we want to reflect the fact that there isn't a lot of acetic acid in the actual solution. Most of it is water. Okay, then we have the density of vinegar and we want the mass of one leader of vinegar. So does see musical to massive out of a volume and therefore we can use density as a conversion factor. So we have one leader of Vinegar convert to milliliters because our identity as a grants for millimeter, then use the density to convert to the mass. You can see that our units on the top and bottom will cancel. We have a massive vinegar report to two significant figures. Then we're told that the vinegar is 5% C. A gas. My mouse, we want the mass of acetic acid and water present. So It's 5% acetic acid. So we just multiply the mass of the vinegar by the decimal version of 5%. So divide 5% by 100 to get .050, multiplied by the mass. We get deaths many grams of citric acid. Report to two significant figures. We get 51 g of acetic acid. So we keep more significant figures as we do further calculations but report the answer to the correct number of sick fix. Then the remaining part of the solution that isn't acetic acid is water. So we're just going to subtract The mass of acetic acid to get the mass of water. Report two, figs. Following the rules of addition and subtraction. Then We want to convert the mask acetic acid two moles. So we have the master acetic acid, we calculate the molar mass the by by the molar mass ticket moles. And then we end up getting this many moles. So this is the equation showing the ionization of acetic acid When 5% of the molecules of the Sikh acids are going to ionized into hydrogen ion and acetate ion. So we want to know how many molecules of each, how many moles of each of the hydrogen ion An essay on our produced so we converted. Let's see a cast of two moles and we're told when 5% are going to turn into the hydrogen and asked a ion we get to the mole ratio from this dissociation reaction is one mole of acetic acid gives us one more of hydrogen ion. One mole of este ion. So now we multiply the moles of the acetic acid by the decimal version of the percent. And then we get the moles of the hydrogen and acetate ion that we get from the amount of acetic acid that we have. Well, charity is a multiple leader. So we have to divide by one leader because that's the total volume of solution. So we are able to get the more clarity of the species in question. We also want the modularity of water. So what that means is we just convert the mass water. Two moles of water divide by leaders of solution, which is one liter of solution and we get the concentration of the water. So you know, as the water has the largest concentration and that makes sense because they said the Vinegar was only 5% to see a gas that by math. So not a lot of it was the vinegar. So it would make sense. Water has the largest concentration. If we go back to our drawing we should have shown more water molecules in the Sikh acid molecules in order to reflect this And also one last thing is that the acetic acid is going to die tonight as well. So we can also show some hydrogen ions which can be represented by circles or you can write H plus we also want to show a state. So I'm just going to draw triangles for the acetate. So basically we just want to show that there are more Cd gas molecules than the ionized particles. To because the concentration of those ionized articles are actually less than the concentration of citric acid. Because the acetic acid only I agonizes 5.5%. So only .5% of these molecules are even going to ionized. So there's going to be even less of the ionized. I noticed uh acetic acid in this solution. So you wouldn't show a lot of the hydrogen or the estate.

Starting with option A first off all we need to balance the first equation so the first equation can be balanced as to see it. Three. Sea or toe us n e a. To seal chri gives out to ch three c 02 Let's see or two less water. The second equation is already balanced, so so we need no confession, Toby added. We want to option B for option B. First off, all we need to convert one gallon off ascetic acid into number of moves off ascetic acid, so number off moles and will be equal to so one gallon multiplied with 3.78 by four. Leaders multiplied with 1000. Emily multiplied with one point. Siegel, 49 grams on duh. One more divided by 60 grams by one Emily. One leader on We have one God so canceling out the number off moles is 6 36.18 More. Now we need to calculate the mass off sodium carbonate in kilograms so the mass will be equal. Do we have 66.18? Mole multiplied with one more off any toe seal. Three divided with two moles off. See, it's three seal toe edge multiplied with 106 grams off any, too. See you three divided by one more off any too CEO. Three. Continuing. We have one kilogram divided by 1000 rounds, so the mast off any to see a tree turns out to be three point 508 kilograms For the wrong, we need to calculate the mass off sodium hydrogen carbonate so the mass over here can be calculated as em for in a H. C. 03 will be equal to 66.18 morel off ch three sea or toe, which multiplied with one move off any edge. Seal three divided by one mole. See, it's three cierto edge, 84 grams. So 84 rounds off, ending H C 03 divided by one more off in its history. Continuing one kilogram divided by 1000 grams. The mast off sodium hydrogen carbonate turns out to be 5.55 mine kilogram


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