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How many carbon atoms in the following structure are chiral?CHZOHHOFoHCHZOHD-Fruceose...

Question

How many carbon atoms in the following structure are chiral?CHZOHHOFoHCHZOHD-Fruceose

How many carbon atoms in the following structure are chiral? CHZOH HO FoH CHZOH D-Fruceose



Answers

How many chiral carbon atoms does the following structure have?

This question asks how maney Cairo carbons this structure has. So the first thing that I'm going to do is add in any hydrogen that are not, um, drawn on it. So there's a hydrogen on this carbon. There are two on this carbon. There's one here and one here on then to figure out how maney Cairo carbon atoms it has. We're going to look at each carbon and decide whether it has four different groups attached. So a cardinal carbon always has four different groups attached to it. So if we look at this carbon right here, this one is actually an SP two carbon. So it is not Kyra. Well, Carol, carbons have to be sp three. You go to this one right here. Um, Sex one over here has two hydrogen is on its that two of the same. So this one is also not to Cairo. This next one over here. Now this one has an alcohol on one side, a hydrogen. It has a carbon bonded to a no age over here. And then a carbon bonded to hydrogen is over here. So this one does have four different um, groups taught us this one is a cultural center, the next carbon right here. This has alcohol, hydrogen carbon bonded to an alcohol and then a carbon bonded to this group here. So this is also four different groups. This is also Cairo. The next carbon over here has a hydrogen, a carbon with a key tone on it carbon with an alcohol on it and then a carbon with these things on its This is also Cairo, since it does have four different groups. And then the last car we're gonna look at is this one. So this one up here has a hydrogen and alcohol, a metal group and then the ring. So also four different groups. So this one is also a Cairo Corbyn. So in total, we have 1234 Cairo carbon atoms on this molecule.

Let's identify any Cairo carbon atoms present in each of the following for a five carbon to is Cairo for be 12 three, four and five flooring. Here there are no Cairo carbon atoms present. And for C to 123456 Then we get seven feet and this molecule here carbon to is Cairo.

Carbon is a carbon atom that is bonded to four different substitute Wint's. So what does that mean? For example, a Cairo carbon could be a carbon that is bonded to four different groups so you can have a carbon bonded to hydrogen bonded to a hydroxyl group bonded to a method group bonded to an isopropyl group. So this is a Kyrill center, this carbon right here because it is bonded to 1234 different things. So let's look at a couple compounds and see if they have a Cairo carbon present or not. For our first one, we have this structure, so we have three carbons. Here we have one carbon two and three, so let's see if we can identify any Cairo centers. So the process for identifying a Cairo center. I find that it helps to draw out all of the atoms in the molecule. So see H h h bonded to a carbon bonded to another methyl group right here. So this helps us easily identify all the carbons as well as all of the different atoms of the carbon is wanted to. So let's start with this first carbon here, so this Carbon is wanted to three hydrogen ins and two other carbons with the hydroxide. You're bonded to it, which means that this carbon is not a Cairo center because it's wanted to three of the same thing. Let's look at the second carbon right here. This carbon is bonded to you hydroxyl group hydrogen and two metal groups, which means that this carbon is also not a Kairos under because it's bonded to two of the same thing. This third carbon here is bonded to three hydrogen and a carbon with other substitue INTs, which means this carbon is also not a Kyrill center. So this first molecule has no Cairo carbons because each carbon is bonded to more than one of the same substitue INTs. Let's look at our second molecule here for the second molecule, we have a butane base, so we have four carbons. Bon, a 21 chlorine. So, just like before, we're going to draw out all of our carbons here to help us see the molecule easier. And let's add our hydrogen XYZ where we can and our chlorine. Don't forget about that chlorine in there. Okay, so now with this molecule, let's go ahead and see so we can tell right away. This carbon is not Cairo because it's bonded to three hydrogen groups. But look at the second carbon right here. This carbon is bonded to a chlorine hydrogen, a metal group and then to carbon zone Ethel Group. So this carbon, it's Cairo. It's bonded to four different things. Let's look at this carbon. So this carbon is bonded to and Ethel group with a chlorine on it. And, um, Ethel Group. So that's two different things, but it's bonded to two hydrogen. So this carbon is not Cairo. And this fourth carbon here is bonded. Three hydrogen is so it's also not Cairo. So this molecule has one Cairo carbon. My pen is being a little funky today. That's all right. And that car carbon is right here for our third molecule. We're gonna be looking at a rather long carbon chain. So we have 12 34567 carbons. And then we have a Ethel group on that third carbon. Here, let's go ahead and write out our structure. I'm going to move this over so we can spread out a little bit. Okay, here we go. So we have a carbon, carbon, carbon, carbon, carbon, carbon, carbon Want to carbon and carbon. Okay, so for ease of radiation, I'm just going to write. The hydrogen is in this way. Two is exponents not a subscript to h two h h two h two h two h three. So now that we've done to normal examples, I can show you a little abbreviation. So now that all of these carbons have their hydrogen is written in this form, you can see any carbon with more than one. Hydrogen will not be Cairo because it's bonded to more than one hydrogen. So any carbon except for this one, will not be Kyrill. But is this carbon Cairo? Let's take a look. So this carbon is bonded toe one hydrogen which is a different group a butane, a beautiful group and then an ethyl group and a second ethnic group. Which means that this carbon is bonded to to Ethel groups, which means it will not be Kyrill. So there are no Cairo carbons in this molecule

The carbon that is bonded to four different substitute Wint's. So what does that mean? And what does that look like? So a substitute Wint is essentially a group. It could be a hydrogen. It could be an isopropyl group. So here we go. We're gonna do an example. So we have a carbon on it to a hydrogen bonded thio hydroxy group bonded to a methyl group bonded to and Amin. How about that? So this carbon is now bonded Thio four different substitutions has wanted to four different things, which means that this carbon is a Cairo center. Now let's go ahead and look at some examples of other molecules and see if they have any Cairo centers. So the steps in determining Cairo centers will be to draw out your molecule in a form that allows you to see all of the carbons within the molecule. This will allow you to easily identify which carbons are in back to Cairo. So our first molecule here we have. So we have a hydroxyl group, uh, to another hydroxyl group. We have a double bond to an oxygen, a double bond to an ox to hydroxyl group. Ah, single bond two hydroxy group and then a double bond to an oxygen. So, like I said, our first step is to draw this molecule where you can see all the carbons to Oh, H double Bond. Oh, okay. So now that we have this molecule drawn out, we can go ahead and identify the Cairo centers. So we call that a Kyle center is a carbon that is bonded to four different substitute. Wint's so right away, we could eliminate this carbon and less carbon because there is a double bond. That means they're only bound to three other substitue INTs, so that just leaves thes two carbons. Here. This carbon will have a hydrogen, these two carbons here. So let's take a closer look. So this carbon is bonded to a Esther group, and this carbon is bonded to whole other two carbons with the hydroxide and some other a stereotype groups and two hydrogen. So because this carbon is bound to two hydrogen, that means it's not bound to four different substitue INTs, which means this carbon is not Cairo. But let's look at this carbon. This carbon is bound to an Esther, another carbon group, hydrogen and hydroxide, which is four different groups. Therefore, this carbon is Cairo. So this molecule has one Cairo carbon. Let's look at our next molecule. Here. Here we have a carbon chain with an M in on it, a double bond to an oxygen. We draw up better a double bond to an oxygen as well as a metal group. So, like before, we're going to draw this out so we can see all of our carbons easier. 1234512345 And then at our I mean on the end, this is going to be an N H two. Okay, so let's go ahead and add are three bond perfect, okay? And this is gonna age three each each to an age to all right. So now that we have, all we have are structured, drawn out. We can go ahead and eliminate the carbons that are bonded to obviously two of the same thing or that have a double bond. Because if you have a double bond, you can't be bound to two or to four different substitutions. So this carbon is not eligible because this carbon is bound to hydrogen. It's also not eligible. This carbon is bound to hydrogen. It's not eligible as well as this carbon, which is bound of three hydrogen. Let's take a closer look at this carbon right here. Now this carbon is bound to a carbon chain, one hydrogen ah, methyl group and a medical group. And because this carbon is bound to two of the same thing, there will be no Cairo carbons and this molecule because even though that molecule is, or even though that carbon looks like it's bound to a couple different groups because it is bound to two of the same groups, it is not Cairo. Our last molecule here is a for carbon chain. It's a butane base with a metal group and a bro mean, So let's go ahead and draw this out. We have carbon, carbon, carbon, carbon. We have a muscle group. You have a second methyl group. We have our bro mean and one hybrid. So let's go ahead and eliminate the carbons that are bound Two more of the same hydrogen there, one or two or more of the same hydrogen because we know they're not Cairo. This one is not Cairo. And this one is not Cairo because this carbons bound to two methyl groups. It is also not going to be Cairo because it's bound to two of the same group. Well, let's take a closer look at this carbon. This carbon is bound to a bro mean a methyl group and an isopropyl group as well as a hydrogen, which means that this carbon is in fact Cairo because it is bound to four different substitute.


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