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Pant BAt 25 C the reaclion from Part A has composition as shown in the table belowPressure (atm)SubstanceCzHz(g) 4.15 Hz(g) 4.95 CHs(g) 5 25*10WNhal the fE @ energy...

Question

Pant BAt 25 C the reaclion from Part A has composition as shown in the table belowPressure (atm)SubstanceCzHz(g) 4.15 Hz(g) 4.95 CHs(g) 5 25*10WNhal the fE @ energy change; AG kilojoules for the reaction under [hese conditions Exprtess your lea A numerically In kilojoules.Vicw Available Hitt(s)G0e(159.1476896SaMre AaIncorrect; Try Again attempts remaining

Pant B At 25 C the reaclion from Part A has composition as shown in the table below Pressure (atm) Substance CzHz(g) 4.15 Hz(g) 4.95 CHs(g) 5 25*10 WNhal the fE @ energy change; AG kilojoules for the reaction under [hese conditions Exprtess your lea A numerically In kilojoules. Vicw Available Hitt(s) G0e (159.1476896 SaM re Aa Incorrect; Try Again attempts remaining



Answers

Given the following information at $25^{\circ} \mathrm{C},$ calculate $\Delta G^{\circ}$ at $25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ for the reaction $$2 \mathrm{~A}(g)+\mathrm{B}(g) \longrightarrow 3 \mathrm{C}(g)$$ $$\begin{array}{ccc} \text { Substance } & \Delta \mathbf{H}_{\mathrm{f}}^{\circ}(\boldsymbol{k J} \text { Imol }) & \mathrm{S}^{\circ}(\text { JImol } \cdot \boldsymbol{K}) \\ \mathrm{A}(g) & 191 & 244 \\ \mathrm{~B}(g) & 70.8 & 300 \\ \mathrm{C}(g) & -197 & 164 \end{array}$$ $$ \begin{array}{llll} \text { a } & -956 \mathrm{~kJ} & \text { b } 956 \mathrm{~kJ} & \text { c }-346 \mathrm{~kJ} \\ \text { d } 346 \mathrm{~kJ} & \text { e }-1.03 \times 10^{3} \mathrm{~kJ} & \end{array} $$ $$ \begin{array}{llll} \text { a } & -956 \mathrm{~kJ} & \text { b } 956 \mathrm{~kJ} & \text { c }-346 \mathrm{~kJ} \\ \text { d } 346 \mathrm{~kJ} & \text { e }-1.03 \times 10^{3} \mathrm{~kJ} & \end{array} $$

So when being asked to find the, um, change of entropy of the surroundings for the given equation, Um, we have to consider a few things. First, let's consider the conditions under which are standard and at one atmosphere of pressure, and we have a temperature which is 25 degrees Celsius. And if we look over here, we can see that to get it into degrees Telvin, which is the standard thermodynamic unit, we have to add 273.15 k and then we get our temperature of 298.15 came and then we can see for this reaction the adult age that is negative 2221 killing jewels and ran soon killer jewels per mole because this is, you know, one mole of reaction. So and let's look of the equation here for to calculate the change in entropy of surroundings, where reaction it is equivalent Teoh, get the negative Don't ah, age of the system for the changes will be This is thumb which were given right here, divided by the temperature which is right here tender in 98.15 kick. So to calculate this going to do is club those rallies in. So we have negative times. Negative 200 or 2220 one killer jewels. Permal this and we have that over our temperature key, which is 298 point 15 K And all we do now is we just club that into our calculator, and we're going to get something around seven point where who are nine 27 killer jewels over Transkei. And since we have about reading about three seconds difficult figures from the temperature population, we're going, Teoh have a value. We're going around to seven point where five kila jewels from Okay, Where are right, all Yes, sir. And that is going to be the delta acid, the surroundings. And so for this problem, when were asked to find the Delta surroundings, that's essentially gonna be the same steps. And we're a the same conditions, same temperature, same atmospheric pressure for the tea is same. So we're gonna calculate Delta s surroundings and that is going to equal. We're also gonna feel dissident collateral from all is well and it's equal negative 100 and 12 killer jewels from all oh, over 298.15 killed in and clinging onto her calculator. We get negative zero for you. 37 five Thanks for 98 thing going on individuals, her double, its times Coben And we also have three significant figures here. So that's gonna equal negative euro point agree. Seven. Six Kill a jewel. Her mole My name's covet and that would be

So in this problem were asked to find the properties that are missing. And you can easily do that. It's pretty much just a a exercise and looking up, finding the right table on, uh, looking up the right value or interpret waiting to figure out correct answer. So in the first case, we have water that has an entropy off seven point 7 kg kilograms Calvin and is at a pressure of 25 pill Pascal's. Now we can go through and we can look at are a couple of table. We can see that that is in the liquid vapor region, and we can figure out that the saturation temperature at um 25 kill Pascal's is is, um, 64.97 degrees Celsius. Knowing the entropy, we can use Theo entropy at the liquid saturation. And I think, uh, uh, paper saturation, Uh, and we can interpret late to get what the quality factor is, and that is 0.981 So we're very close to having almost all vapor assume you can see, because the well we add this and this that would be the yeah, entropy with all vapor and then we can use the quality factor or basically just interpret late to find the entropy Onda again. We can take the entropy at the at the liquid phase Onda, then the change here and multiply that by ecstasy. You know, we're gonna be very close to this and that turns out that we get we're gonna be very close to the vapor phase. And that is 25.73 25 2573.8. Killer jewels kilogram Now in B. We have water and we have an internal energy given and a pressure given. We can look up and figure out that if we look up in our to phase tables, we can figure out that this internal energy means is higher than the internal energy for just purely gas. And so we have way have a superheated vapor in this case. So we're gonna go onto table B 1.3 and we can figure out that the temperature must be 682 degrees c and the entropy is 7.12 to 3 killer drills per kilogram. Calvin, in the part C, we have our 12 as they're working fluid and it's at zero temperature of zero c and the pressure of 200. Killer Pascal's on. We can lose table be 2000.3 point two, and we will figure out that that is superheated vapor. Uh, sorry. Yeah, that's super heated. That's superheated vapor and so X that they asked us to find is undefined or, yeah, I guess you could even say it's one. But it's It's past past that point, and then we have the entropy we can figure out. We can just look it up for the pressure and the temperature, and we get that it is 0.73 to 5 killer jewels per kilogram. Calvin. Now for problems. For Part B, we have the working Florida's are 1 34 a at a temperature of minus 10 degrees C and quality factor of 0.45 So here weekend, we just need thio interpret late and we can do that. Bye. You know, knowing what this is and interpolated between the liquid and vapor phases and we get the specific volume is 0.4506 cubic meters per kilogram, and the entropy in his 1.30 to 2 killer jewels per kilogram, Calvin. And now we can Let's see here, the last one, We have ammonia, and it is at a temperature of 20 degrees C. And if we look up the entropy, um, in the two phase diagram, or to phase tables way, see that Theo entropy is greater than it is for just a a pure gas, the gas phase. So that means we have a superheated vapor so we can move on the table. B 2.2 and we were asked to find Theo n therapy or sorry, the internal energy. And we can just interpret late. Uhh yeah, interpret late for that for a given this entropy in this temperature and we get that that is 1356.7 killer jewels per kilogram.

Going to be calculating several different thermodynamic properties for several different reactions. So our first reaction here is magnesium oxide being formed from magnesium metal and oxygen gas. So the first thing we're gonna do is calculate our standard entropy for our reaction. So we're gonna do our products minus are reacting, is using the data and appendix B. So we know that the standard entropy for our magnesium oxide is equal to negative. 601.7 killed goals Permal And then we're going to attract that from the reactions here. So we have to Don't forget your coefficients. By the way, you have two times zero kill jewels, Permal because it is a medal and then oxygen gas is also going to be zero because it is a pure gas. So that gives us a NDP of our reaction of negative 1203.4 kg promote for our standard entropy of reaction. We do the same thing to use our standard n trapeze for these different substances. Products minus reactant. They're going to go ahead and do that. Don't forget coefficient. Two times the standard entropy for magnesium oxide is 26.9 killed. Jules Permal, Calvin. Excuse me. Jewels from all Calvin track that from our reactant. Here we have two times 32.7 jewels per mole, Kelvin. And then finally, for our oxygen gas, we have 205 0.0 jewels for more common. And that will give us a standard entropy of reaction of negative 216.6 Jules per mole, Kelvin. And because we're going to go on and calculate our standard free energy of reaction, let's go ahead and convert our standard entropy in to kill a Jules so we can match up the units here. So we have jewels here. We know that there are 1000 jewels in one killer jewell, which gives us negative 0.2166 Kill a Jules Permal. Calvin. Awesome. So now we can use that data and calculate our free energy of this reaction. We know that our Delta G standard is equal to adults. Age standard. My s t dealt a standard. Go ahead and plug in some numbers. Here we have our delta G standards equal Thio, our adult age standard. Negative 1203.4 killed. Jewels Permal Subtract that from our standard temperature 298 kelvin times are standard entropy of reaction Negative 0.2166 vigils Permal, Calvin And that is going to give us a standard free energy for this reaction of negative 1138 0.9 killed jewels. Permal. So this reaction is going to be very spontaneous in the forward direction because the stele Taji standard value is very negative. When you're Delta G standard is less than zero. Remember, the reaction will be spontaneous. So our next reaction here we have magnesium carbonate turning into magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide gas the same procedure as before. We're going to go ahead and do our products minus reactions for boulder envelops and R n trapeze. For our magnesium oxide, we have negative 601 point Scuse me. Negative. 600 and 1.7 kill jewels formal and in the interest of room here, all of the units for here going to be 601.7. So we have 600 607.1 kg per mole for standard entropy information. So that's one of our products. And then we're going to add that to our carbon dioxide. Here we have negative 393.5. And then, like I said, kill jewels. Permal, subtract that from our reactant. Here we have negative 1000 96 killed goals for more. This gives us a standard entropy of reaction of 100.8 killer jewels for more same procedure for our standard entropy here, we're going to do our products minus R. React INTs. So, for our products are magnesium oxide is going to be 29.9 jewels per mole, Kelvin, adding that to our carbon dioxide here we have 213.6 jewels per mole. Kelvin, subtracting that from our reactant, we have 67 65.7 jewels from McKelvin, which is going to give us a standard entropy of reaction of 177.8. Jules, Criminal Kelvin, like before, we're going to go ahead and convert this into kill jewels so we can have our calculated calculation later be much easier. Same processes before we're gonna use our delta G standard equals Delta H minus t Delta s equation. So let's go ahead and plug in some numbers. Here are Delta G Standard is equal to our adults H standard and our killer jewels. Permal minus rt. Standard temperature and our delta pass it. 0.177 eight killed. Jewel's her mole excellence. This is going to give us a doctor G standard value of 47 0.8 village ALS Permal Now, in this case are delta G. Standard value here is positive, and that is indicative that this reaction is non spontaneous. When you're Delta G value is greater than zero. Your reaction will be non spontaneous for our third equation. Here we have Ferris oxide or we have iron three oxide. So we're going to go ahead and do our same process here. We're going to do our are adults h standard in our adult s standard. So just like the normal products minus reactions here, pence kind of wigging out a little bit. That's okay. So we're going to do our aluminum oxide. Don't create your coefficient. Two times negative. Huge number here, 1676 killing jewels per mole, plus two times and then we have a solid metal here. So two times zero kill jewels for more. Subtract that from our reactions. Here we have our affairs oxide to be negative. 824 point to kill jewels promote added to two times in a solid aluminum which is going to be zero. This will give us adults age standard value of negative 2000 527.8 killed goals for more So as we could tell from a very large negative Delta H standard value. This reaction is very exo. Thermic. Just because the reaction is extra thermic doesn't necessarily mean that it will be spontaneous. But usually if you have a largely extra thermic reaction, it will tend to be spontaneous. But it all depends on our entropy here and the temperature. So to calculate our entropy is we have two times are aluminum oxide is going to be 50.9. Jules, Permal, Calvin times two times are iron metal, which is gonna be 27.3 jewels. Promote Kelvin, the track that from our reactions here for affairs oxide, we have 87 0.4 jewels from all Calvin, adding that to our aluminum metal, we have two times 28.3 jewels for McKelvin. This will give us an entropy level. Scuse me. And final standard entropy of 12.4. Jules, Colonel Calvin, just like before. We're going to go ahead and convert this into Kelly jewels. That will give a 0.124 eligibles. Permal. Calvin, this will save you. The conversion stepped down the line when you go ahead and calculate our delta G standard value, which is going to be equal to negative. 2527.8 village ALS Permal minus our temperature. Here we have 28. Oh, my gosh. 298 Calvin times are standard entropy, which is 0.124 Kelly jewels. Permal. Calvin. Okay, so this will give us a delta G standard value of negative 2531.5 eligibles Permal. So, like I said above, just because of reaction is highly x author America does not necessarily mean that is spontaneous, but here we have a very negative delta G value, which means this reaction is in fact, highly spontaneous. So we have our last reaction here, where we have sodium bicarbonate turning into sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide, gas and water. Cash is water the same procedures before we're gonna calculate our adult h standard value here. So we have three products. We have our sodium carbon e, which is going to be negative 1103.7 kg per mole. We're gonna add that to our carbon dioxide. There's gonna be negative. 393 point five killed. Jewels promote. And now that to our gashes Water, you mean negative. 241.8 kg per mole. Subtract that from our reactant where we have two times. Don't forget those coefficients there. We have two times negative. 950.8 kg. Promote. This will give us a delta H standard value of 162 point six killed jewels. Permal. So to calculate our standard entropy, same deal with our products, minus our reactions here for our products. For our sodium carbonate, we have 135 0.0 jewels per mole. Kelvin, plus our co two gas here which is going to be 213.6 goals from Calvin, plus our gashes water, which is going to be 188 0.7. Keep in mind here, when you're looking at Appendix B, always double check what state your substances are in. Because gas is water and liquid water have different entropy, s and M for peace. So quick tip. And then our final sodium bicarbonate. Here we have two times 102 Jules. Promote common. So this gives us an entropy value off 333 0.3 Jules from Or Kevin Kind of a phone number? No, Jules Promoter Kelvin Tools from module. That's fine, Jules from all Elvin. And let's go ahead and convert that into our eligibles. So you get 0.3333 killer jewels for more Calvin. Awesome. So now we can finally calculate our last Delta G standard value here. We know that our adult H is equal to 162.6 killed jewels Permal minus our temperature. 298 kelvin times are entropy, which is 0.3333 Killah jewels per mole, Kelvin. And this will give us a final Delta G standard value for this reaction of positive 63.3. Kill a Jules Permal. And because this is a positive number, that is indicative that this reaction is non spontaneous. So to answer the second part of this question, how does adult EGY standard value change when the temperature has increased? Let's scroll back up here and look at our original equation. Where we have our delta G standard is equal to Delta H standard minus T delta s. As you increase the temperature this entire term here of negative T Delta s will become more negative. Therefore, if you have a positive Delta H value, the higher that this term becomes, the more negative that this overall term will be. Therefore, as you increase, temperature reactions tend to become more spontaneous.

And with our summer dynamics work. And again we're looking at the calculation for the standard free energy change we have. Delta jeannot is equal to the sum of the malls gives free energy of formation of the products. Subtract some models, most by the gibbs, Free energy or formation of the reactant where you can plug in our values that we have. And what we get is delta G. Nor is equal to negative one for 1.8 kg jewels. And so following on from this, we have another equation why with delta G is equal to delta G. Note, add R T L N. Q. So just as helpful hint here, we've got Q. Where Q is equal to P. S. 03 squared was the story key metric coefficients. P. S. 02 squared multiplied by P. 02 So don't forget that we need to southern this expression in fuck you when we're solving for delta G. Where the value of the partial pressure of CO two is 8.96 times 10 to the minus 26 atmosphere. That allows us to solve so we've just rearranged this final equation for 8.96 times 10 to the minus 26 atmosphere.


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