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The following questions Urilecumplei HentencetFrordethots Miacrorhilal diagram oln clcmenCion) contain the sameDocs the electnom cumneuration Inlominticn"confi...

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The following questions Urilecumplei HentencetFrordethots Miacrorhilal diagram oln clcmenCion) contain the sameDocs the electnom cumneuration Inlominticn"configuration and orbital diagram ofan element (or ion)? What €n you Icam tron tne electronComplete the following lable:Description or QuestionHnsmerlemenisthe periodic table are arrunged the order of = column 0f elements known as: TOw 0f elements known J5: Among the elements, tnuc thal Lhere afc om- nOn-metals than metals! Tne False The

the following questions Urile cumplei Hentencet Frordethots Miacr orhilal diagram oln clcmenC ion) contain the same Docs the electnom cumneuration Inlominticn" configuration and orbital diagram ofan element (or ion)? What €n you Icam tron tne electron Complete the following lable: Description or Question Hnsmer lemenis the periodic table are arrunged the order of = column 0f elements known as: TOw 0f elements known J5: Among the elements, tnuc thal Lhere afc om- nOn-metals than metals! Tne False The column containing sexlium as a member is called: The column containing argon as member is called: The column containing fluorine 45 membcr is called: The column containing strontium as= member is called Is it true that most of the elements are diatomic? True False When there an electron transition from 2 t0 n exothermic? 6. is the How many photons are involved? process endothermic or Is(are) photon(s) released or absorbed?



Answers

Determine whether each statement that follows is true or false: a) Electron energies are quantized in excited states but not in the ground state. b) Line spectra of the elements are experimental evidence of the quantization of electron energies. c) Energy is released as an electron passes from ground state to an excited state. d) The energy of an electron may be between two quantized energy levels. e) The Bohr model explanation of line spectra is still thought to be correct. f) The quantum mechanical model of the atom describes orbits in which electrons travel around the nucleus. g) Orbitals are regions in which there is a high probability of finding an electron. h) All energy sublevels have the same number of orbitals. i) The $3 p$ orbitals of an atom are larger than its $2 p$ orbitals but smaller than its $4 p$ orbitals. j) At a given sublevel, the maximum number of $d$ electrons is 5 k) The halogens are found in Group $7 \mathrm{A} / 17$ of the periodic table. I) The dot structure of the alkaline earths is $\mathrm{X} \cdot$, where $\mathrm{X}$ is the symbol of any element in the family. m) Stable ions formed by alkaline earth metals are isoelectronic with noble gas atoms. n) Atomic numbers 23 and 45 both belong to transition elements. o) Atomic numbers $52,35,$ and 18 are arranged in order of increasing atomic size. p) Atomic numbers $7,16,$ and 35 are all nonmetals.

So we were looking at chemistry on trends to be specific. So this links into our period a city which is also covered in this podcast series, where we're looking at how elements are placed on the periodic table to reveal their period of city to us and the trends and the properties that they possess, which allows us to determine how exactly these elements might work in chemical reactions. So the smallest atomic radius in the Group 16 is oxygen. The largest atomic radius in the sixth period is freedom. Oh, a moving on to the sad point. We're looking for the metal with the smallest atomic radius in Assad period. That has the element at the left hand side. So this is aluminum. The the highest organization energy and Group 14 that is carbon lowest in the first period has the element at the left side off the period that is all seen on so the most metallic element in the 15th period that is bismuth the I. So next we have the highest energy level field in the fourth period, which is crypt on element with dick following configuration and E three asked to three piece two is silicon element with the configuration KR 5 to 46 is Are you? I went with the configuration. Ir three d three is titanium element in the first period with the pseudo noble gas configuration with plus three is cadmium element in the fourth period that forms three bliss. Die magnetic ion be element in the fourth period that forms a two plus iron with half filled the orbital is manganese on n heaviest land Tonight is why be element in the third period. That's like I saw electronics with a are one in the tu minus is so for that air alkaline as metal where the Catalan is isil Electronic with K R is strong tea. Um lastly the matter Lloyd from group five A with the most acidic oxide is arsenic.

Okay, So in this problem, we have a table with, let's see, six different elements. And in this table, we have the numerical value for the ionization energy of each one of these elements. And as the problems as the problem tells us, the ionization energy is the minimal energy required to remove the list bound electron from the ground state atom. And we have to answer a few different things in this problem. The first thing in ICT and a let's put here, we have to convert the energy of the this ionization energy to electoral votes. Uh huh. Atom. Okay, so we have an energy right now of killer gels, firm all, and we have to convert this for electoral votes per atom. Okay, so how we going to do this before we actually calculate in each one of them? Let's understand how we make this conversion. So let's start here with the kilo, Joel. Thermal. Okay, So if we want to change the killer jowls for two electoral votes, well, this is already, uh, know how to do so. One killer jowl. It's basically six point 24 times 10 to the 21 electoral votes and How do we convert them all? So one more is six point zero 22 14 times 10 to the 23 atoms. So one mall has this number of atoms therefore dividing this We get that. Let's put here. We get that one killer jowls firm all is equal. 0.10 36. This is a six electron votes for atoms. Okay, so this is the number we have to multiply each one of the elements. So let's make our table here. So the answer for the first question, which is to describe all the ionization energy in electoral votes per atom, will be for lithium. Uh, the energy will be 0.0 10 36. That multiplies their ionization energy, which is 5 to 0.2. And that gives us a total of five point tree 91 electoral votes. And for the sake of the simplicity of the solution, let's call this constant Here, this conversion constant. Let's call this constant A okay, just for the sake of the solution, because we will repeat this constant in each one of the elements. So let's continue it. Uh, sergeant right now represented by the largest N A. Well, the energy will be again the constant A which we already know multiply by for 95 0.8, which gives us our energy or five point one 39 electoral votes. And for protection, we have an energy of aid and multiplies for 18 0.8. So this is going to be a cool four points 3 41 electoral votes. Okay, And continuing with European, we have an energy eight times 403 Yeah. So this is equal four 0.1 77 electron votes. Wow, this is a V. Okay, Uh, for some reason, I believe this is the element For season, we have an energy of eight times. Mhm 375.7. So multiplying this three points 894 electoral votes. And finally, I do not know the name of this element, but the last one will be the constant A multiply by 3. 80. So this is a crow. 3.9 electoral votes. So this here are the answer for each one of the elements the ionization energy of each one of these elements in electoral votes. Okay, so this is the first item Now let's move on to the second question of this problem. Which is what is the atomic number Z and the quantum number and for each one of the elements. So to answer this, we need to consume the periodic table and we will find that for life in, uh, the atomic number Ups, atomic number Z Kiko Street. Therefore, the quantum number n for the last shell and will be too during the same for sodium. We have Z air crows 11 n echoes three. Well, now let's move on with the elements. We have potassium. Okay, So, okay, will be Z echoes. Let me see the table 19 and the M will be equals four. Religion. We have a quantum number of vehicles, actually, atomic number Z equals 37 and the quantum number and echoes five. And the last two I was put here will be sergeant with a Z a cross 55 and an M equals six. Yeah, And the last one, uh, which I do not know the name. We're busy. Echoes 87 and ecos seven. Okay, so this is the table for the second question. Now, for the third question, we have four questions in this particular problem. Third question I can see. Uh, we have to calculate the effective quantum atomic numbers are not quantum, the effective atomic number and how we calculate this well effective atomic number is calculated using this equation here. So the equation for the energy which is Z effective, square divided by and square, that multiplies 13.6, which is the energy of the ground state. Okay, so to calculate the effective number of each one of the elements we need first of all to use the energy of vitamin A, which we already described here on this list. And we need to use the quantum number and of item B therefore, as an example, let's do this for lithium. So far left soon, we have the energy of five points 391 which is equal z effective square divided by two square that multiplies 13.6 and calculating this for Z mhm or the effective Z, we have one point 26. Okay, so this is the effective atomic number and we just need to do the same calculation for all of the elements and we're going to find a table like this one in here. So we have commission. We have a Z effective equals one point 26. Sergeant, we have effective Z because one point 84 compassion. Yeah, yeah, Mhm. We have, uh Let's see, this is two points 26 and the last tree Azr obedient, uh, two point 77 Sassoon. Mhm is three point 21 and this one is 3.8. Okay, so these are all the effective, defective Z of these elements. And the last question is a interpretation question which we just need to to explain if the ionization energy decreases or increases as Z increases. So let's look here too easy. We can see that dizzy is increasing from life even to the last one. The video has 37 say Sachin has 55. 87 is the last one. So Z is increasing and as we can see, uh, the effective Z is also increasing. Therefore, the answer for I'm candy will be that z effective is proportional. Yeah, to the atomic number Z because FZ increases the effective also increases. Okay, so that's your final answer

So we're taking a look at faster or electron configuration. So this is the arrangement of electrons within our structure. So we have fastest so fast. We have one us too to ask to to the 6323 p. Four. So you have about 6 ft instruct electrons. That looks correct. So next quantum number the for the highest energy electron on sofa. We have the highest energy electron in the three p. So therefore, our quantum numbers for this and equals three because that's our quantum number. L equals one because we have a P orbital M l equals minus one because our electron of the highest energy is in the minus one sub orbital when we have minus juan zero plus one, which is where we got our early calls, one from a swell. So our electron is just in there on the EMAS is plus one half because we haven't up spin from the next party. Almond has the smallest organization and just sulfur on the smallest radius containing element is oxygen. So in the next part here theme soft atom, it's smaller than s two minus. Remember I on I on it on Ionic species where they have formal negative charges are bigger in size because they have less effective nuclear charge to share. Next, we have 578 grounds off S C L two to make 675 grounds of S O C. L two. It's moving on to the next part. We have 10 g of eso to 10 g of SCL too Generates 11 g of S C l two in theory where we can have some decimal places where we've got 11.662 if you need the decimal places So next we've got G so we can have a standard molar entropy of formation. So we have a delta H ere off 90 6.7 kg joules per mole can rewrite those units is kilo jewels Put mall to the minus one If you don't want the division

Here. We have a pretty simple question. And I just noticed I'm not on it. So let me get on it. Uh We are given three electron configurations and I've written these three electron configurations down. These are electron configurations for elements in an excited state. We are asked to write the ground state. All right down here, electron configuration for the element. So for the first one We have one s to to us too, which will remain the same. And then what should fill up next? We have three remaining black drones And they should go in the two p 3. And that is element to 4567. That is nitrogen. For our next element. We'll still have a bargain. And our three d 10 now our forests one will become forest too. That takes care of that. And then four p 4 And the four p 4 B. Is cellini um last krypton still there. And then we're going to have our five s. 2 and R four D seven. And I believe this one was rhodium. But since I went so fast on this, I'm going to go check that 1234567 Rhodium is correct and we're done.


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