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2. Uridine diphosphate(UDP) linked sugars are referred to as activated sugar nucleotides in which the anomeric carbon is linked to the diphosphate of the nucleotide...

Question

2. Uridine diphosphate(UDP) linked sugars are referred to as activated sugar nucleotides in which the anomeric carbon is linked to the diphosphate of the nucleotide: These nucleotide-linked sugars are utilized by glycosyltransferases to form complex oligosaccharides_ Glycosyltransferases catalyze the addition of the sugar from the activated nucleotide to any position on another sugar.a) Draw UDP-linked galactose with the sugar in chair conformation:b) Glycosytlransferases are categorized as inve

2. Uridine diphosphate(UDP) linked sugars are referred to as activated sugar nucleotides in which the anomeric carbon is linked to the diphosphate of the nucleotide: These nucleotide-linked sugars are utilized by glycosyltransferases to form complex oligosaccharides_ Glycosyltransferases catalyze the addition of the sugar from the activated nucleotide to any position on another sugar. a) Draw UDP-linked galactose with the sugar in chair conformation: b) Glycosytlransferases are categorized as inverting or retaining enzymes which either invert or retain the stereochemistry of the sugar when it is transferred from UDP to another sugar: Draw simple mechanism showing the inverting mechanism for the formation of B-galactopyranosyl (1-74)-8 glucopyranose_ You should know which is the acceptor sugar and which is the donated sugar based on the above information: c) Glycosyltransferase reactions are thermodynamically favorable: In order for this to be the case what do you think the approximate dGc' of a glycosidic linkage and why?



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Simple sugars undergo reaction with phenylhydrazine, PhNHNH_, to yield crystalline derivatives called osazones. The reaction is a bit complex, however, as shown by the fact that glucose and fructose yield the same osazone. (a) Draw the structure of a third sugar that yields the same osazone as glucose and fructose. (b) Using glucose as the example, the first step in osazone formation is reaction of the sugar with phenylhydrazine to yield an imine called a phenylhydrazone. Draw the structure of the product. (c) The second and third steps in osazone formation are tautomerization of the phenylhydrazone to give an enol, followed by elimination of aniline to give a keto imine. Draw the structures of both the enol tautomer and the keto imine. (d) The final step is reaction of the keto imine with 2 equivalents of phenylhydrazine to yield the osazone plus ammonia. Propose a mechanism for this step.

Hello. So what we have here is a depiction of Glick exotic bond. So what a glass classic bond is, is just a bond between two sugars. It's a connection between two sugars that are joined together to make a die Sacha ride or poly sacrifice. In this particular example we have glucose and fructose. So two simple sugars, two monos aka rides. When these two form together, they make sucrose, which is household sugar, just the sugar that we use every day to sweeten our coffee or foods and any, any form of sweetener. And this is important because this classic city bond is so this was particularly as a one and a two. So you have an alpha one for one. Classic bond makes them with a beta two o'clock exit bond. So this joins these two together. So let's say that you wanted to break these apart and reform them or cook something at home and make it sweet without having to, without having your sugar associate. So, but I'm picture a glass of water. If you pour sugar into a glass of water, what's going to happen is, well you stir it up and you see that some of the mixture is starting to mix with the water. And what's actually happening is that these sugar molecules are being hydrolyzed or they're going through the process of hydraulic. This means to cut with water or break break bonds apart with water. And that water then usually forms a proton and some hydroxyl group in a hydroxyl group is just an O. H. But you binds to something something some some product. And so when we so we have our glass full of sugar of sugar and water. So when you mix it you start seeing that some of it is dissolved but some of it doesn't get dissolved and some particles tend to float around. If you were to let that same water sit, what you would notice is that, yes, you have some sugar that isn't bonded or isn't mixed into the water. But if you let it sit, you would see that even more sugar begins to reform with itself and remake those same classic bonds. And you have more sugar associated or more sugar at the bottom of the glass. And you'd have cleaner water because there's a less sugar and in your water mixture. So when we're cooking, let's say we're making candy or we're making caramel or a jam or jelly. That's a problem. We don't want the sugar to break apart and associates. So what we do in a household setting is that we would like to hydrolyzed water in a rapid way and prevent that from and prevent those sugars from breaking apart from water and reforming with, with its uh broken off sugar. So you don't you don't want the sugar and water mixture to break apart. You want them to stay bonded together. So the way we would go about this is that we would pour our sugar into a pot of boiling water. So when you boil something at someone, you put something or some form of solid or some form of mixture into something with heat, in this case, boiling water, you accelerate the reaction. I mean, you accelerate the reaction of what's happening in this particular example is you have your pouring sugar into boiling water and what the process is accelerating is hydraulic sis. So what you're going, what's going to happen is you're going to have these sucrose molecules, this table sugar mix into this boiling water and that boiling water is the bonds of water and the water molecules are bouncing all over the place at a rapid rate that they're able to break apart that sucrose a lot easier. And when they're broken apart a lot easier, well then you're, you're able to prevent them from reforming from each other. And when you have it at a high heat, these molecules aren't able to form bonds properly. So when they're able to, so when you let that boiling water mixture sit, you create something called an inverted sugar, an invert sugar. It just, it got its name invert or inverted because of the unique physical properties that it gives off. So when light hits that inverted sugar, it's gonna bend light in a different way. It's not going to behave in its usual manner. So you would have like a glowing like appearance, a sheen like appearance. So, and to do this non NZ dramatically is that we boil this. So in a normal setting, when you create candy or caramel, some form of sweet mixture, it's like jams or jellies. You would add yeast or some sort of starter culture, some form of enzyme to accelerate the process and break apart those bonds and create hydrologists or push hydrologist a little faster. But at home we might not have the, that that form of equipment or we might not have those special chemicals or special enzymes at our disposal. So what we do is we just pour sugar and boiling water. Then that boiling water creates a dialysis or accelerates high genesis and let's say we want to make it tart or make it some form of uh we had a born wanna have some flavor or what we want to increase the acidity so that the sugar isn't able to bond or break apart as easily once it solidified once, once it's cooled down. So instead of adding some other chemical, some some some form of enzyme or some preservative is with lemon juice or acid or some uh, sour cream, some cream of tartar, something acidic.

There are two basic mechanisms for the elongation of biomolecules, which are represented in type one. The activating Group X is released from the growing chain in type two. The activating group, as it is added to the growing chain, is released from the incoming unit. Mhm. We want to know from the following bio synthesis whether they are a type one or type two mechanism. Our first is glycogen synthesis. It is type two. Our second is fatty acid synthesis. It is. Type one three is carbon five yields carbon 10 yields carbon 15 in cholesterol synthesis. Its type one. Our next is DNA synthesis. We're just type two RNA synthesis is also type two, and lastly, protein synthesis is type one.


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