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The Denslty Transfer Experlment (shown below) Is repeated on an allen Ilfe form, and you flnd that Its DNA replicatlon Is not semi-conservative (Ilke all Ilfe on Ea...

Question

The Denslty Transfer Experlment (shown below) Is repeated on an allen Ilfe form, and you flnd that Its DNA replicatlon Is not semi-conservative (Ilke all Ilfe on Earth); but non- conservatlveRedraw the replication mechanism and observed densities for 3 generations of a non-conservative_DNA replication:

The Denslty Transfer Experlment (shown below) Is repeated on an allen Ilfe form, and you flnd that Its DNA replicatlon Is not semi-conservative (Ilke all Ilfe on Earth); but non- conservatlve Redraw the replication mechanism and observed densities for 3 generations of a non-conservative_DNA replication:



Answers

DNA replication is bidirectional and discontinuous; explain your understanding of those concepts.

Um So why is dinner Replication called it bi directional, and this continues. And this is because the two strands of DNA are being sympathised in two different directions. So and also one of the strain is being that as discontinuous Lee. So let's look at the replication bubble and get an idea while we caught it. Bi directional first. So when replication happens, the replication bubble opens on. There are two replication folks on beside the bubble. So one replication book on the left hand side moved towards left. And then there is another replication off work moved towards right. So this is also in a sense of bi directional. And if you will look at only one of replication for, let's say, the one on the left hand side, and then again, it's bi directional, so the top strand is the unwind. It and they use is a template for leading strength. So the leading instruments sympathized in a complementary manner, according to the template parental strict. So is as you can see, those top strand template goes from 5 to 3 for left to right, so the bottoms eso the nudity empathized, leading Stern star from original replication of middle, and it goes from, uh, the middle towards left. So it's in the same direction of replication Fork. Um, so this train is being criticized in the same direction of verification fork. And this is because the in a play Marie's can only to the ties the instrument from 5 to 3 direction. So remember, the leading strand is being synthesized continuously, and it's being sympathised in the same direction as the replication of fork movement. Now the bottom strand is a little different, because again, DNA Plimer race can only accept the task d n a. From 5 to 3 direction. So, as you can see the first fragment that's being put down, um, about him, we call relating strand synthesised away from replication fork movement. So it goes from left to right direction. So this fragment we could Okazaki fragment again. This is because the Deanna primaries can only go for 5 to 3 direction and the newly sensitized and it has to be complementary to the templates. Trent. So, um, you can see the leading sternal Agnes train are being synthesized in the opposite directions. Bi directional. Now, while do we also call it discontinues on this is because ah, the Okazaki fragments are discontinues Frank. Um And so, as you can see, the one that I m label us all on every Frankel number one is the 1st 1 to put down and the set them one, um, is to the left hand side of the 1st 1 So, as you can see, the holographic fragments are being digitized this continuously starting from the middle of the replication of fork. So this fragment eventually will be put together, are connected together by lie days. And then they will become, um, continuous, continuous Indy. And but during the process, the Al Qaeda the fragments are being synthesized discontinuous. And this is why we called it boasts bi directional. And this continues.

This'll question asked us to fill in the blank unit directional replication of a circular DNE molecule like a plasma it that involves nicking one D n a strand and displacing it while synthesizing a new strand is called blank. And the answer here will be this one. You just have to look back at your reading, but basically the mechanism that is responsible for rip late or replicating a circular DNA molecule by nicking one of the DNA strands and displacing it. Wow! Ah, making or synthesizing a new strand is called Rolling Circle replication, so this is what will go in our blank.

Well, okay, So a key thing to focus in on on this question is that idea of semi conservative replication and just breaking down these words because they're really long conservative. It's taken me a few seconds, Steve, and write it down. So replication and just breaking down what those even mean? So I'm actually gonna start with the second part of that. So So replication. All that does is to me it means to make a copy of something. We're going to replicate it. We're going to make a make a copy, and then with the semi conservative part, we've got a couple of clues. The semi part is going to mean that a portion of it, or maybe even a half usually semi is associated with a half half conserved and then in good definition building, you shouldn't. You should never use the word to describe the words so concerned. To take that to the next step, it just means to save something. So if you think a forest conservation were trying to save the trees s so that they don't all get cut down and you know, leaving behind all of that ecosystem, so we know with the semi conservative model of replication and excuse me, little work there, we're gonna have part of it that is conserved, and we're gonna have part of it that is new. So that helps us when we look over at the answer choices. So now I'm just drawing a little drawing. If the black part is the old part, I guess, or the conserved part and the red line is the new part. That's sort of what we're looking at and what we're looking for in our answer choices. So now we can start looking at our answer choices. Well, if if some of it is conserved and some of it isn't well, we're not just gonna have to brand new ones. We can see that it's not too red lines anywhere. So that helps us to get rid of choice A. And with the choice, be one new one old in this system. Um, both of the copies are going to have a bit. That's old in a bit. That's new. So we're not going to just have one, you know, we don't see one. That's all, Red. Here s oh, that's gonna help us get rid of choice be, and C and D might seem kind of the same, but just ah, if we had Choice D, it might look a little bit more like this, like a mix of that. So if that's are conserved and this is our new, you can see how it's just all chopped up and little pieces of new little pieces of old. But there's not. There's not one new strand, one old strand, um, so that could be a little confusing if you if you aren't completely clear on the semi conservative. But the way that it happens and as you learn more about the process, is that it happens this way. Where you each one has. You can kind of think of it as a mix, but a mix would be more like a salad like all chopped up. Um, this one is more each part, so each strand of that DNA ones new and one is conserved. Onda concerned. One acted as a blueprint to make that that red one, and this one acted as a blueprint to make this new strand here, So that's more how it works. So that leaves choice see as our best answer for this one

So this is problem five after across six DNA structure and function. The question is when DNA replication begins, So during DNA replication, D N a healthy cases and win D N. A add position called origin, where synthesis will be initiated. So DNA have anti parallel structure. So we can say that when DNA replication begins, then the two DNA strengths and went from each other, so therefore option A Is the correct one no.


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