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Consider this:_Ine dbsoroancesolutlon related the the distance throueh which Ileht (navel sample and the concentration the sample by means the Beer-Lambert snoxn MO...

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Consider this:_Ine dbsoroancesolutlon related the the distance throueh which Ileht (navel sample and the concentration the sample by means the Beer-Lambert snoxn MOrC slmply = Beer' $ Law:absorptivity; canstani that dependsthe wavelength and the absorbingspecies path length; dlstance throuph the sample concentration absorbing species the sampleDraw sketch of what you think plot of should look like and constant on the Y-axis and on (ne *Jxs Wii - plot be Iincar?heldWhat should the value be f

Consider this:_ Ine dbsoroance solutlon related the the distance throueh which Ileht (navel sample and the concentration the sample by means the Beer-Lambert snoxn MOrC slmply = Beer' $ Law: absorptivity; canstani that depends the wavelength and the absorbing species path length; dlstance throuph the sample concentration absorbing species the sample Draw sketch of what you think plot of should look like and constant on the Y-axis and on (ne *Jxs Wii - plot be Iincar? held What should the value be for the y-intercept? . Calcium Analysis Measure out 100 mL of tapwater into graduated cylinder. Pour Into your 250- beaker: Add 10 mLof concentrated hydrochloric acid in the hoods. Stir carefully. Run your sample twice on the AA, resulting TriaE and Trial_ in the table below: Note-



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To an Erlenmeyer flask containing $21.0 \mathrm{~mL}$ of a milk sample mixed with approximately $50 \mathrm{~mL}$ of water; a chemist added $7.32 \times 10^{-6} \mathrm{Ci}$ of ${ }^{45} \mathrm{Ca}$. After adding some sodium sulfate solution, filtering, and drying the resulting precipitate, the mass of $\mathrm{CaSO}_{4}$ was found to be $12.8 \mathrm{mg}$. When the activity of the precipitate was measured, it was found to be $2.75 \times 10^{-6} \mathrm{Ci}$. What is the concentration of calcium ions in the milk? Does this sample meet the concentrations stated on a milk carton? (The RDA for calcium is $1300 \mathrm{mg}$ between the ages of 14 and $19 .)$

In this question when applying modeling and data fitting. Say we've been given the motel see is equality. three exponent of -2 teams. So for the first part of the question if C. Is in more Paletta It means the implicit units of 3 3 more later. And the implicit units of T. Of two are two per minute. So moving on to the next part of the question but be At T. is equal to zero. The executive value of C. is equal to three exponent 2 multiplied by zero which is equal job three more. Okay later and then at T. Is equal to one. We've got the actual or the exact value of C. to be equal to three. E. explained of too much bread by one Which is required to 0.406 more open later. So the question is now asking us to compare the interpolation versus the exact value of C. T. Is equal job 0.6. Yeah. So if we're looking at the exact one, See exact it is equal to three. Exponents of -2 Multiplied by 0.6. This is equal to 0.9. More. Okay later now if we are to use interpretation we've got to against C And we've got zero zero We've got three and it was At one. We've got 0.406. 0.406. So we're looking for it's for the value of C. When T is equal to 0.6 let's call this X. So if we are to use two in population we are assuming that T vs. See is a straight line straightly and if this is a straight line it means the gradient, it any point is constant. And if we are to cooperate gradient we know Greg and is equal to change in Y over engine. And this value is the question constant. All air correctly. So applying this principle to this data, what we have here is three miners. Zero point 406 over one minus zero. Should be equal to x minus three over zero point six minus zero. All we have done here is to say this is our eggs, this is our Y. Changing X. For this part. Changing why for this part over change in X should be equal to this change and why divided by this changing X. Remember the gradient question for L. Straight like so if we make the calculation here we'll find that at T. Is a quarter of 7.6. See will be equal to the concentration. Say Be equal to one point. Well okay later visas. The actual of is your apartment more political. So if we do the same Given that C. is equality. zero one more political. We're now looking for for the tank. So if we use the exact We've got 0.1 is equal to train exponents of negative two two. We need to solve for 14. So what we have here is 0.1 over drink is equal to exponents of negative two. T. Len 0.1 overthrew should be equal to negative sure. Chain. So if we saw 14 T. Is equal to this is the exact exactly T of our team. Six is equal to one point. Mhm. Yeah. So moving on to use an interpolation. Remember I've got a team a chance to see and we calculated we had this terrible as zero one myth three and zero point 406 Now we've been told But the sea is 0.1. So what is the value of X. We apply into position here until that zero point 406 three Over 1 0 should be equal to 0.1 -1 three over minus zero. Therefore X. Is equal to before me. The calculation here find that is a question. 1.12. Yeah. So At C. is equal to 0.1 more. Villager. This occurs H. T. is what one one two minute. So moving on to the next part, we are asked to plot sketch a curve of C against T. So we've got two and see if we are using the actual curve where we have C. Is equal to 38 Yeah negative two T. This is going to be yeah. And let's just we throw this. We've got our, see the difference Kiev Remember at T. is equal to zero C. Is the culture right? We already have the care terrible. The type of values of T against C. The T. Three. Then it is equal to one. We calculated that he's opened 4.0 0.4. Yeah. Six. Okay. This was what the actual T. is close to zero. So this valley here three and this is an exponential curve. Exponential care. So it would be careful. But if we are to use the values are calculated using interpolation, intra and interpolation. This is called interpolation. Then this is in preparation if we are to use the values that we completed about we determined that T. Is equal to 1.1 Here. We've been having a little .1 Then here in 1.1. True. There's a point here Then you also completed 40 years is quite reserve 26 and we found that C. Is equal to 0.4. So if we've got a 1.4 they say I want put for use around here. Yeah. Our T. is going to be because your .6 76 will go around here. Yeah. And guess what like that.

Given equation off exit one less Lord one plus six in deal fixes. Who picks? Let's see the graph for this equation. One off the rocks. Just be like that is one less long one visit, and the second is to your fix. You will see they even at the beginning of the gravel to your face off. The local function was here, so let's see shorter off the graph that lets what does 40 and see the good off. So the blue he's one plus 116 and that it line is Google Itics. So we noticed that even if the beginning of the graph of the longer it makes function was your demographic on the square function after also interval, the Quetta function is growing higher than the got off to function. Let's see the intersection point in the section points at 13.5

If we have an absorption graph based on concentration of iron ions, it might look something like this where our concentration is on the X axis and our absorption is on the Y axis. So as our concentration increases are, absorption increases with now the Grady int of this, uh, this graph where the slope of this graph is actually going to represent arm Mueller extinction coefficient is because if you remember, um, slope of a graph equals rides overrun. Then in this case, we have absorption divided by concentration and assuming that our path length is the same the entire time, one centimeter and this is actually going to be equal to our extinction coefficient. So this will be constantly entire time. Now, let's say that we are given an absorption value a zero point to you, and we want to figure out what is the concentration at that absorption. Now, there are two ways you can do this. You could come over to the craft and say, Well, our absorption values approximately right here, and so we can trace that back, and so are concentration. Must be approximately right here. But if your graph doesn't really allow you Thio determine the concentration that easily we can always calculate it. So let's say that we need to find our extinction coefficient first so we can grab two points off this graph and find the slope. So let's use this point, which is 0.0.3 point six on this point, which is one in 2.25 These are approximate values, so we're going to save point are 2.25 and a 0.6, all divided by 1.0 minus 0.3. That's going to give us an extinction coefficient or a slope of approximately two point 36 All right, so if we use this as our extinction coefficient, we know our absorption is point Thio. By the way, the units of this are going to be decimate er's cute per mole centimeter. So if we put these in, we remember our beer's law tells us the concentration of a solution is equal to the absorption divided by the extinction coefficient multiplied by the path like so, if we remember this, we can go ahead and plug in our values. 0.2 divided by 2.36 desi meters cubed from mole centimeter multiplied by a path length of one centimeter, and that gives us a concentration of approximately nine times 10 to the negative. Six moles per decimate er cute. And that's how you would find the concentration based on the absorption value and a given absorption graph.

Okay. So as we titrate here, we know that the tight trading agent is going to be an acid and we know this because as you look at the curves, the ph goes down so the ph is decreasing the whole time. And that means you must be adding an acid. Mm And if we want to try to identify the weakest base, the weakest base is going to be the one that starts with the lowest ph. Okay. Because the higher the ph the stronger the base. So in this case is going to be C. All right. And then we're going to be asked. We want to find the K A for for in curved B. So, I'm going to use the half equivalence point. It's kind of a easiest way I think. Right, because we know at the half equivalence point that h plus concentration is equal to the area. So for be the half of equivalence point is happening at 25 ml. So if you read up and across, I'd say the ph is right around eight. So that means our Pekka Is eight and RK is just about one time to turn the minor seat. Okay, So we're looking for the polarity of our solution. Well, in all cases, we used 50 ml To titrate 50 million liters of a weak base. So that's telling us that our polarities are all the same. So this is going to be .1 moller. Uh huh. And then finally, if we're looking for the ph at the equivalent point for curd a just kind of look alright halfway between and read over and I'd say the ph is about five.


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