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And centromere location of the chromosomes shown in Figure10l Observe the relative length Next; drw_brackets around and assign the appropriate letter_to cach ofthe_...

Question

And centromere location of the chromosomes shown in Figure10l Observe the relative length Next; drw_brackets around and assign the appropriate letter_to cach ofthe_cight groups. Note Uhat position, the X chromosome is similar tO the chromosomes in the terms of size and centromere group of autosomes and the chromosome is similar (0 the G autosomes_ alS one on either sidle of the centromere: For identifying All human chromosomes have (WO ann5 of chromosomes with respect t0 the centromere, and q ar

and centromere location of the chromosomes shown in Figure10l Observe the relative length Next; drw_brackets around and assign the appropriate letter_to cach ofthe_cight groups. Note Uhat position, the X chromosome is similar tO the chromosomes in the terms of size and centromere group of autosomes and the chromosome is similar (0 the G autosomes_ alS one on either sidle of the centromere: For identifying All human chromosomes have (WO ann5 of chromosomes with respect t0 the centromere, and q are used to designate the short (p) and the long ans, respectively: Using Figure_101 as guide locate the centromere region of each chromosome in Figure_10.2, place brackets around each ar (centromere t0 each end) of all chromosomes and then label each arm with either or g



Answers

A cell has two pairs of submetacentric chromosomes, which we will call chromosomes $\mathrm{I}_{\mathrm{x}}, \mathrm{I}_{\mathrm{b}}, \mathrm{II}_{\mathrm{u}}$ and $\mathrm{II}_{\mathrm{b}}$ (chromosomes $\mathrm{I}_{\mathrm{a}}$ and $\mathrm{I}_{\mathrm{b}}$ are homologs, and chromosomes $\mathrm{II}_{\mathrm{a}}$ and $\mathrm{II}_{\mathrm{b}}$ are homologs ). Allele $M$ is located on the long arm of chromosome $\mathrm{I}_{y}$, and allele $m$ is located at the same position on chromosome $\mathrm{I}_{6} .$ Allele $P$ is located on the short arm of chromosome $\mathrm{I}_{y}$ and allele $p$ is located at the same position on chromosome $\mathrm{I}_{\mathrm{b}} .$ Allele $R$ is located on chromosome $\mathrm{II}_{2}$ and allele $r$ is located at the same position on chromosome $\mathrm{II}_{\mathrm{b}}$ a. Draw these chromosomes, identifying genes $M, m, P, p$ $R,$ and $r,$ as they might appear in metaphase I of meiosis. Assume that there is no crossing over. b. Taking into consideration the random separation of chromosomes in anaphase I, draw the chromosomes (with genes identified) present in all possible types of gametes that might result from this cell's undergoing meiosis. Assume that there is no crossing over.

So we first in 1/2 to draw a cell in meta Phase one. And that cell has to have the chromosomes. Ah, with their genes in a particular way. And so let's see if I could do this. So question says there's going to be no crossing over, so I'm not gonna have them very close to touching, but not quite touching. So that's my first pair of homologous chromosomes. And here is my second pair, homologous chromosomes. I'm just trying the chromosomes. And first, and then they will leave on my wheels. Right. And the wheel could be put sort of any place on the chromosomes. Um, but I'm going to have, uh my big P Leo. That's a big P and my big peel here. And then my big Emma Leo here and there's gonna be another big Emily ill. They're kind of hard to see that one. Um, And in this chromosome, we're gonna have our little P Leo and our little Emma Leo. And of course, they'll be little peas and a little Emily Oldham that committed as well. And then this one, the crime some on the left will have the big are Leal's and the Kremlin. So on the right, we'll have the little our Leos. So this is to a This is to be This is one A and this is one. Be so that's the answer toe question. A keep in mind, things be, could be mere images and stuff like that. That's sort of just upto. However you chose to draw it for be then were asked to produce Gandhi's the GAM meats that can come out of this assuming there's no crossing over and that makes a big difference. So we're gonna hand up with four game meats and I will start with two here. Um, and remember, this is the end of my Oh, sis, But we're going to have to. Chromosomes are gonna be employed, um, and and they don't have to be in my ASUs our meta face so they could just be sort of hither and young, right? And this will be a big P. That's when we'll have a big M and this one will have a big are. So this game he has all the dominant Jalil's and then this one well again have the big P and the Big M well but it will have the lower case. R a Leo. All right, so that's two of our for a game meats. Look to the other two. So this these air big p began big r and big p begin. Little are than we need to switch to new little P and little M So so little p and little M. And this 1st 1 will have the big Our Leo on the second chromosome. And then finally, we will again have little p little m. And finally, little are so this one is as the recess of all three recess. It feels so, therefore, gaming's that can be made from this set up. Assuming that there's no crossing over, keep in mind if there's crossing over that, it would get more complicated.

Okay, We're going to look at a couple of different terms here, and the first one is going to be crossing over. So what happens in a crossover event is, um we have thes two chromosomes here, and when crossover happens, you can see the crossover event happening right here in the middle, and that results in thes chromosomes. And they have segments from each of the chromosomes. So here we have the red one that has a segment of the blue. And here we have the blue chromosome that has a segment of the red. And a delusion is when a chromosome here indicated by this pink one Here, um, let's say this gene has four genes, So 1234 we labeled it. And in a deletion, um, when it replicates what normally, when it would normally replicate to itself to have it. 1234 again, it actually deletes one of the genes. And so it ends up just being 1 to 4 in non disjunction things has to do with again replication. So here we can see. Um, this is Metta phase one, and these chromosomes are lining up and they're getting ready to divide and weaken See here in and a phase that they're dividing. But we can see that they divided unequally. So here we have three chromosomes, and here we only have one. And so when it goes to replicate again in meta phase two, um, that ends up with these three replicating here and this one on Lee having one chromosome to replicate here and this result in, um, an an employee where this one, uh, thes two have n plus one because they have extra chromosomes. And this one has an minus one and being the normal amount of chromosomes. Now, the next term is transportation and translocation is when we have two genes as seen here, and I labeled them just generically 1234 And then on the other chromosome 5678 And when translocation happens, we can see what this ends up being. The order will be change, so it will actually be 1278 And then, uh, the other chromosome, the green one will have 56 It's normal chromosome, but then it will have 34 from the other chromosome and Correa typing. This is, uh, a way that we can kind of sort the chromosomes. So when the chromosomes are lined up in meta phase, as we saw on this figure up here, um, they are very condensed and easily to identify. So carry a typing. What it does is identify these chromosomes and sort them by their defining feature. And then the last term is linkage group. So what a linkage group is is to find as being all the genes on the same chromosome. So if we look at this chromosome here that I've drawn all of these genes, let's just label them generically. 123 456 All these genes here or what we can be, um we can call them that. They're all on the same linkage group.

A primary construction. A primary construction present in present in a chromosome. A chromosome is called the central meal. The ST Romir syndrome. Your holes syndrome, ear holes to dramatics to dramatics offer chromosome offer from his own none of based on the position based on the position after central me are of the central mirror it. The chromosomes the chromosomes can be classified can be classified can be classified into four types into four types and they are Let's see what the four types are. I also show a small representation of them. The first one is meta Cindric, meta Cindric, meta centric has middle has middle send Romeo Sandra mia, middle central meal farming too. For me, two equal arms, equal arms of the chromosomes of the chromosomes. Secondly submit to send rick sub meta Cindric submit to centric half chromosome. I mean central mirror central Near slightly aware, slightly away from the middle from the middle of the chromosome of the chromosome, resulting in resulting mm one shorter arm, one shorter arm and one more extended arm. Well extended arm. The 3rd type is Let's move to the 3rd type. That is actress centric across centric central mirror situated syndrome. Your is situated close to it, close to it, informing and forming one extremely shot. One extremely shot extremely short and one very long, one very long. Um The 4th 1 is Teela centric dillo Cindric. And you are the central mirror is in the terminal. Central mirror is at the dominant. Let me show you a small representation of how on each different kinds the central mirrors placed. So imagine are supposed to be a chromosome. You have the central meal here with this chromosome. Again there systematics. There we go. This one is the first one as we have said, the meta Cindric. This is meta Cindric where the central mirror is in the middle and just having equal arms. And one of the particular features of some of the chromosomes is it is having a a structure here, which is called which is a construct in construction. This can be said to be us a secondary construction, secondary construction and he orders it to be satellite. Satellite. Okay, now this is a meta centric. A meta centric. Let's move on to the next one, submit a Cindric. So we have the statistical dramatics With one shot arm one not so long arm a little bit extended. I think it's not that extended. Okay, stops along its just just out of the middle part until we can find the centering. We're used aware from center and this can be said to be the short arm. Okay, so this is submit a centric, submit to centric And let me show you the next one that is afrocentric. Afrocentric is, as we have said, shorter arms With longer one below the central mirror will be moving towards the end. This is the central muir here we have long arms. This is a short arm, oops shot on and it's moving it away from the center and it's reaching towards the end. So this is actress centric. Finally, let's go on to telus centric. So in tele centric, the central near is in the terminal. This is the chromatic look much more shorter at the end and this is how Tito centric looks like. We have the short arms here. The central mirror of the terminal. Oops central new at terminal. Now this is a long arm. And so if it's at the terminal, the central mere being in the terminal it is said to be T law centric kilo centric. That is it. I hope the concept dispute to you. Thank you.

Distinguish. Mhm. Yeah, distinguish between my cousin creek. Yeah. And across and drink. Mhm. A gruesome drink chromosomes. Okay. As objectives. The difference between matters and trick and eco centric? Is that mattress centric is off all pertaining? Mhm. Ordaining two murders in groups while eco centric is Mhm genetics of chromosomes, genetics of crow Muslims. Mhm. And having the syndrome ear very near to an end. Yeah. Mhm. They're in there to one end enters having a long arm, having a long arm and having a long arm and very short down. I'm very short arm. Mhm. Yeah. Draw my test and drink and eco centric chromosomes. Yeah. Mhm. Yeah. Okay. This is medicine dRIHK. Yeah. And this one. Yeah. Uh huh. Okay. Mhm. And this one is eco centric. Right. Okay. No Muslims. Okay.


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