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Question

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Thrr hualls Hlazha neidn an cMrlic Whcn Inelulct fukrumn octcd nE Teul HAIA /unt FFSu Iocn Ku Ball [ Th Iass ~IOg kxutel4 X =15 EallChne mis Zuz Lociice 1223cn Cilculale x-coordinilc unthecenlc omice ollcrandall cndof thc rulacm hantd ol mnies nrachcd light string tkal / #rapped #hed mlem #hel relased allow ing Wcight to ill and Cuse Ihe #hcel uccclrale rlihonally_In Ihe expcrimanl; tha Tlational accckeration Ineluny Tha nccclenlion dul "TtiI endtha monnt of incrtia of the whcrl WYod: oulalonnula Tur Icurs cleuht fnit by following tncee dens: Write Neuton 2law for the flling WaluneuaIT_actt IXu loncJcung on I; the gnatin fone mg and tha tcisiun in the string Writc Neuton Zan ulananaomn Ihc Wlccl Expross Ih luruuc erns ofthe teneol ind whelrduns Exprc > Illc unculir ilcceleralion temi G potre coun[cclockist [OTYUC Inclc ncealivc (dunwurda lncar eccclention Combine the IWO cquations climinale Erorn (hcmand ohuiin tonnula fur (nenccccration (enns ofL,mg Chcck your cquation make sure it has the concct bchavior _ For examplc_ whc I=0 , @ should cqual Whcn _ Gcts infinitely Iarge, should Finally; substitule a = your fommula and solve obtain the required fonnula lemns Ol the variables -



Answers

SNAREs exist as complementary partners that carry out membrane fusions between appropriate vesicles and their target membranes. In this way, a vesicle with a particular variety of v-SNARE will fuse only with a membrane that carries the complementary t-SNARE. In some instances, however, fusions of identical membranes (homotypic fusions) are known to occur. For example, when a yeast cell forms a bud, vesicles derived from the mother cell's vacuole move into the bud where they fuse with one another to form a new vacuole. These vesicles carry both v-SNAREs and t-SNAREs. Are both types of SNAREs essential for this homotypic fusion event? To test this point, you have developed an ingenious assay for fusion of vacuolar vesicles. You prepare vesicles from two different mutant strains of yeast: strain B has a defective gene for vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (Pase); strain A is defective for the protease that converts the precursor of alkaline phosphatase (pro-Pase) into its active form (Pase) (Figure $Q 13-2 A$ ). Neither strain has active alkaline phosphatase, but when extracts of the strains are mixed, vesicle fusion generates active alkaline phosphatase, which can be easily measured (Figure $\mathrm{Q} 13-2$ ). Now you delete the genes for the vacuolar V-SNARE, t-SNARE, or both in each of the two yeast strains. You prepare vacuolar vesicles from each and test them for their ability to fuse, as measured by the alkaline phosphatase assay (Figure $\mathrm{Q} 13-2 \mathrm{B})$ What do these data say about the requirements for V-SNAREs and t-SNAREs in the fusion of vacuolar vesicles? Does it matter which kind of SNARE is on which vesicle?


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