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Crossing over between band apGametesb apb +tapNo crossing over between b and apapGametesb apbapt+(b)Figure 9.6 Crossing over with black and apterous The cross- over...

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Crossing over between band apGametesb apb +tapNo crossing over between b and apapGametesb apbapt+(b)Figure 9.6 Crossing over with black and apterous The cross- over that explains the results with black and apterous from Figure 9.4(b) is shown: Note that only two of the four chromatids are in- volved; two chromatids do not participate in the crossover: This figure is a close-up of the chromosomal region between b and ap; most ofthe crossovers on this chromosome will not occur between these two ge

Crossing over between band ap Gametes b ap b + tap No crossing over between b and ap ap Gametes b ap bap t+ (b) Figure 9.6 Crossing over with black and apterous The cross- over that explains the results with black and apterous from Figure 9.4(b) is shown: Note that only two of the four chromatids are in- volved; two chromatids do not participate in the crossover: This figure is a close-up of the chromosomal region between b and ap; most ofthe crossovers on this chromosome will not occur between these two genes;



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Alleles $A$ and $a$ are located on a pair of metacentric chromosomes. Alleles $B$ and $b$ are located on a pair of acrocentric chromosomes. $A$ cross is made between individuals having the following genotypes: $A a$ $B b \times a a b b$ a. Draw the chromosomes as they would appear in each type of gamete produced by these individuals. b. For each type of progeny resulting from this cross, draw the chromosomes as they would appear in a cell at $\mathrm{G}_{1}, \mathrm{G}_{2},$ and metaphase of mitosis.

My ASUs is a type of cell division that produces for germ cells or, in other words, game meats. At the end of one cycle, mitosis and this type episode division can be found in sexually reproducing organisms such as humans is at the end of this cycle we produce for gay means. And so females. This will be germs. Step, this will be excels and and nails. This will be sperm it. So basically, we end up with four cells of four different combinations of genetic material. And during sexual reproduction, potentially one of these cells can be used to form an embryo in a baby, and how it's picked is random, as we know of. But all the genetic material comes from the beginning of mitosis such as interface, and I won't go through all the steps of mitosis. But basically we start with pro Phase one, where the nuclear envelope starts to disappear. Our spindle fibers in sentry ALS also start to form and move to opposite ends of the cell, and also during this time our chromosomes start to convince, as you can see here, inform tetrapods or homologous chromosomes. And so right now we have a deployed cell. This means that there's genetic material from two different sources, which comes from both parents. And so this red and green chromosome right here actually is the same chromosome. It's just the red might have come from the mother, and the green might have come from the father. But something special happens when homologous chromosomes or ted tribes come together in pro phase one, and that is crossing over. A recombination is so during crossing over, part of the genetic material of one chromosome can basically be switched to the other chromosome. And so the red chromosome, which we deemed to be come from the mother, could actually have some of the father chromosome. And so that's how we get a recombination and crossing over. It's actually really important for generations and generations, just adding some variable, too, our genetic material. And it can also help us locate specific genes on a chromosome, and so chromosomes can cross over in multiple places or it cannot cross over at all. And there's different ways you can determine the likelihood of it crossing over at a specific place. But we won't go into that. And so just to show you kind of what crossing over might look like is we will start with the read chromosome so it comes from the mother, Is that convinces, informs a little X shape and then the they're chromosome. We'll come over and during this time it can cross over. And then what happens is when it separates, which is an interface one when these two separate. What we're going to have is we're going to have a mostly red chromosome because we only had a crossover once. But we're going to have a little bit of the green corazon connect to that. And then this Fred part is going to go with the green, and it always crosses over at the same spot so you won't have one chromosome with, like double the genetic material as the other. Or you won't lose any genetic material during crossing over. If you do lose genetic material, then that would be considered a mutation, which can happen. But luckily it doesn't happen too often, and so crossing over occurs with ted rods or homologous chromosomes and pro phase one of my emphasis, and it will only occur then

So in this question, we're told that there are there is Gene A and Jean B and that they're both found on the same chromosome. And we're told that they are 50 math units apart. So where do we get this? Where do we get map units? Map units are, um, one unit one math unit. Wow is equal. Thio Ah, 1% likelihood that recombination will occur between the two genes, so it's equal to 1% recombination frequency. So that means that these genes would be really close if they only 1% of offspring would show recombinant peanut type. So being 50 units apart, however, that means 50% of the time. Because each math unit is equal to 1% of 50% of the time. There's a recombination frequency, there's recombination. And so that is the recombination frequency between A and B. So 50% is the recombination frequency between A and B. And so if we were thio, do a cross between hetero zegas and Hamas, I guess recessive, we would see 50 50 or we'd see 50% recombination, and in actuality, this would be no different from what you would expect to see no different. Um, from what you would expect to see if independent assortment was occurring? Uh huh. Because an independent assortment there are two different chromosomes that you can receive from your parents and 50% chance that you receive one versus the other. And so there would be a 50 50% um, likelihood of having one people type versus the other peanut type due to the different wheels. So we really wouldn't be able to tell that A and B are linked at all because they're so far apart. They're so far apart on the chroma zone that crossing over occurring all throughout this area is so likely to happen. And so it's it's very There's hardly any difference between that, and it's as if A and B were on different chromosomes. However, um, the way we would see linkage occurring is if there was another Alil. So if you were able to see linkage, um, with another Lille with for both these wheels, then we would be able to tell that they're on the same chromosome. So if let's say there's a gene here and let's say that's Jean C, you probably be able to find that there is linkage between C and B and that there's linkage between C and A and then you would be able to infer the linkage between A and B. But for this purpose, there's really no difference than with it than you would find an independent assortment.

Okay, so we're still on heredity and Mendel's laws. And here we were, given that two genes, um, A and B are linked. So that means that they segregated together instead of independently. And so first part A has us, Um, describing the distribution of geno types and field types if we do a cross. So the parents we have our Hamas Agus. So we would have a big A big B for both eso. Since they're linked, I kind of treat them as one of your rather than a pair. Okay. And then we'll have the recessive version here. And so if we do the cross, um, we will get It's essentially doing a cross, um, with just one genotype rather than thebe diet Khyber across. You are used to Okay, But when we look at de gea types and FINA types, 100% of them are going to be Hamas. I guess are actually head Rose, I guess. Okay. And we'll express both dominant treats, um, on dime writing it a little bit unconventionally. More conventional would be It's like big a little a big be little B But by keeping it this way, it helps me remember that the genes are linked, which means there's traveling together and not being able. Thio be split apart in the gametes. So then we go into part B and that wants us to cross one of the F one generations. That's the hetero zegas with the recessive parents. So we'll take our F one with the excessive parent. Yeah. And so then we get on this top row a pair of the dominant Leal's and a pair of the recessive ones. The bottom is all excessive. Yes. Okay, so 50% our head rose. I guess they would express the dominant traits. And 50% are home Azia successive. So they express the recessive phenotype part C wants us to do the same thing, but with e dominant parents. Okay, so across the top we get home is a is dominant. Then across the bottom, we get headers. I gets dominant. Yes, Okay. And again, this was put up in 2 50 50 distribution. So we have homeless, I guess. Dominant. And headers, I guess. But in this case, the funeral type is 100% dominant. Okay, so that brings us to the last part D, which is What? Um, mental laws being violated in here, That's going to be the law of segregation. And now this lot of segregation. So, uh, see if I can spell. Okay, well, the segregation states that any of these genes are will basically not travel with another one. Okay, Says to Leal's for a characteristic will separate during the gametes and end up in different gametes. So according to a lot of segregation, this, like from our F one generation, this Abe, uh, this hetero sex version should be able to form gammy. It's of every combination. But instead, um, as this problem is, having us have linked traits instead, it could only form the game. It's of of two of them, right? So we're getting to Gambians instead of four. And that is what? Um, that's why this lot of segregation is being violated. Okay, And then that actually wraps up all the parts of this problem

Link genes are found on the same chromosome. So let's draw us a picture, Um, just to remind us of what chromosome looks like and a label it. So here's a chrome it'd. And here's the second chroma t'd remember. They each have a Centrum ear. The tips are cat with these repeating sub units, and they formed something called a telomere. Telomeres are found at the ends of each chrome. It'd so every chromosome with two chroma tints has four telomeres. The jeans and the Leal's are located in between the central mere and the Thiel Amir. A wheels are in specific places on the chromosome, and these locations are called a locus, which is singular. Close eye is plural, so here you'd have these guys. And so late genes are found on the same chromosome, which means that they are inherited together and crossing over can split them the to link jeans. But it really depends on how far apart they are. As a general rule, if the A wheels or genes are close together, crossing over probability is really low. If, however, the genes are really far apart and you have a lot of distance in between the likelihood of crossing over is higher. So late genes have these characteristics there found on the same chromosome their inherited together because the chrome it'd is passed on as a unit and all of those wheels on that primitive go to the offspring and crossing over is possible. It just depends on number one, the location of that particular gene, and Alil and number two how far apart they are from the gene and which is going to cross over with.


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