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3.(12 pts) For each of the following, copy relevant half-reactions and E'ted values from Appendix E and predict if the overall reaction is spontaneous Or not: ...

Question

3.(12 pts) For each of the following, copy relevant half-reactions and E'ted values from Appendix E and predict if the overall reaction is spontaneous Or not: a) reduction of Cd-(aq) by Ag(s) b) reduction of Cr20z (aq) by Hz(g) in acidic medium oxidation of Mn?t(aq) to MnO4 (aq) by Alt(aq) oxidation of Cl(aq) by HCIO(aq) in acidic medium

3.(12 pts) For each of the following, copy relevant half-reactions and E'ted values from Appendix E and predict if the overall reaction is spontaneous Or not: a) reduction of Cd-(aq) by Ag(s) b) reduction of Cr20z (aq) by Hz(g) in acidic medium oxidation of Mn?t(aq) to MnO4 (aq) by Alt(aq) oxidation of Cl(aq) by HCIO(aq) in acidic medium



Answers

Balance each skeleton reaction, use Appendix D to calculate $E_{\mathrm{cel}}^{\circ}$ and state whether the reaction is spontaneous:
(a) $\mathrm{Cu}^{+}(a q)+\mathrm{PbO}_{2}(s)+\mathrm{SO}_{4}^{2-}(a q) \longrightarrow$
(b) $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}(a q)+\mathrm{Ni}^{2+}(a q) \longrightarrow \mathrm{O}_{2}(g)+\mathrm{Ni}(s)[\text { acidic }]$

To know where the oxidation to know where the oxidation off s in two plus a curious bye bra mean Aquarius is spontaneous, are not so. And this reaction at a nod is in two plus oxidizes in tow sn four plus releasing two electrons. So the oxidation for this reaction is minus 0.154 is the reelection value is let's 0.15 To write the reaction in the reverse direction and change the e reelection value toe e oxidation, we will change the sign. So we have put the sign minus 0.15 It gets old reduction off the bro. Mean will take place, which will get the two electrons and will form the two bromide sign. So the e reduction for the Brahmins is plus 1.9 world toe. Find the SL. We will add the two equations s n two plus plus PR toe. We can cross the electrons so from s and four plus and tau B R minus where in order off the cell is the sum of the elbow e oxidation and reduction values which is equal to zero plying nine for world now to calculate Delta Jean Art, which is ableto mind us and if in art is and is the number of electrons last and again, which is equal toe to moles up electrons. If it's Ferrari Constant, which is 96,500 Coolum per moral of electrons and YSL, we can write 0.94 world and stayed up world. We can write Joel per column as one World is equal toe. One job for Coolum Putting the values in the equation. We will get minus toe more lap electrons and 96,500 Coolum Par moral of electrons multiply by 0.9 for Jowell Pirkle Um we can cross the Coolum and moral of electrons multiplying the values we will get minus 181 4 to 0 Jowell, change it and kill our job. We will divide this value by 1000 so we will get Delta Jeannot minus 181.42 Killer job is Delta G not his negative your value while energy his positive value Therefore the reaction is spontaneous. This is the required solution to this question. Find where the reduction we had the reduction off nickel two plus on and by the S and two plus iron is on 10 years are not we can like that s n two plus we'll oxidizes and toe s and four plus and we'll release two electrons or the oxidation potential for this reaction is minus 0.15 fold Where an i two plus well again, two electrons to change and to nickel. So the e reduction for the nickel is also minus 0.26 world combining both equations So s n two plus react with and I two plus farm It's in formless and nickel zero acceleration state he off the cell is equal toe e oxidation plus the reduction adding the values we will get minus zero point for one world or to find out Delta Jeannot for the reaction which is equal to minus. And if in our where n is the number of electrons which is to moles up electrons, if it's fill out a constant, which is 96,500 Cool um Parmalat electrons and the off the cell is minus zero point for one Jowell Pirkle, um is one world is one Joel per Coolum putting the values we will get minus to moral of electrons and 96,500. Cool. Um, Carmela electrons and e not is minus zero point for one job per kulum. We can cross the units we will get, so we will get that it is equal toe plus 79130 Jowl toe change and kill legible dividing by 1000. So we will get plus 7, 9.13 kill a job. This is Delta Jeannot, for this is Delta Jean Art has positive value and energy has negative value. This is the case for the non spontaneous reaction. So the reaction is non spontaneous. In the third case to find where the reduction off are you lean. Bye Age toe s or three This on 10 years are not so. And this reaction the oxidation off the H to s 03 in the presence of water, take place toe form IHS or for tu minus plus four hydrogen ions and four electrons are released. The oxidation for this reaction is minus 0.17 world while on the other hand, two iodide a Irene can the four electrons, um, for hired eyes. So the the reduction for the Irene is 0.54 world. Now, combining the two equations, we will get that H two s 03 right h to s or three react with the I Odeen and the presence off water. We can cross the electrons on either side. So we will get that for iodide. Ions are formed sulfate fine. And for hydrogen eyes, he not off the cell is equal to the sum of the e oxidation, plus the reduction so that some of the two values is zero plein three stay one world No. So find Delta Jean Art, which is equal to minus. And if he not we're in is the number of electrons last endgame? So the total number of electrons last and again in the reaction is for malls of electrons. If it's fill out a constant, which is 96,500 Coolum par moral of electrons and energy in this case is 0.37 world. So I and stood up we can Joel Pirkle, um is one world is equal toe one putting the values minus. We're Ennis for malls off electron fs Ferrari constant 96,500 Coolum part Moeller electrons. And in art is 0.37 Joel purple. Um, cutting The units are born below. We can get the delta. Jeannot is equal toe minus delta. Jeannot is equal to minus 142 a 20 Jowell toe change Trento kill a job. We were divided by thousands or minus one 42.82 Killer Joe, this is Delta Jean Art. As Delta Jeannot has a negative value while energy his positive value. This is the case for spontaneous reaction. So the reaction A spontaneous reaction. This is the required solution to this question. No, in the case where the oxidation off silver bye lead on spontaneous are not so In this case, the silver has bean oxidizes in tow. Silver I'll the silver has bean oxidizes and two silver iron reducing tau electrons. So the e oxidation for the silver is minus 0.80 world while the lead on has bean reduced and toe PB. So the reduction for this is equal toe minus 0.13 word to write the Net equation And to find the easily so to a D react with Pee Wee to place. We can cross the electron on either side from two a. D plus and I let ah, Adam e not off. The cell is equal toe the e oxidation, plus the reduction, which is equal to minus 0.93 world toe. Find Delta Jeannot for this reaction, which is equal to minus. And if en art as and as the number of electrons, which is two moles up, electron last and again in this reaction, if it's filler the constant, which is 96,500 cool, um, per mole of electrons and in art up the sale and stood up World weekend rightto minus 0.93 and stood up World weekend right job per column, general particular is one world is equal toe one child for cool. Um, putting The values were here and the Delta Jean Art. We will get minus mola electrons and 96,500 Coolum Parmalat electrons and tow energy is minus 0.93 child per column, getting the units above and below. So Delta Jean art is equal toe plus adding multiplying the negative sign with order, son will be posited you plus 179 490 Jowell and change it in tow. Kill a job. We were divided by 1000. So they're dajun r is equal 179.49 Hello, John. Is Terry Taji not his positive value. While in art, off the cell is negative value, which is the condition for the non spontaneous reaction. This is the required solution to this part of the question.

So this question we have, Bean asked that we have to balance the Redox chemical reaction and then we have to calculate their in order and then state whether the reaction is spontaneous or not. So we will start with part A. So we will take one half off the reaction, which is Amen to positive goes toe. Amen. Okay, okay. And now we will balance the oxygen atoms first. So oxygen atoms can be balanced by two water molecules here and now. Since we have forage atoms on the left hand side, we will add four edge positive atoms on the right hand side. And to balance the charge, we have to positive on the left hand side. So we add two electrons on the right hand side tohave the overall charge balanced. So this is the oxidation reaction since we undergoing, uh, los off electrons, toe electrons. And now the next half off the cycle for the next half of the reaction is co abide three positive goes toe cobalt to positive. And now this is clearly a reduction reaction, since we just need one electron to balance the whole chemical reaction. And since this is thesis is undergoing by a, uh, like again off one electron. So this is a reduction reaction. Now we will have to add these two equations to balance it sotto cancel out the two electrons or the electron portion. We will have to multiply the reduction reaction by two to cancel this out. Okay. And now the overall equation will be amen to positive. Bless to water molecules plus two, CEO three positive, which goes toe form, amen. Or two. Look, plus footage. Positive, less to CEO to positive. Okay. And now this is our balanced chemical equation. And now, in the next part, we have bean asked to calculate the e not off the cell. So if you see the appendix d, the reduction takes place at cathode. So our e cathode is 1.82 and our e n O is one point 23 Okay, And now, to calculate the not sell, it's equally not get hold minus in order a note so 1.8 to minus 1.23 which is equal to 0.59 now to state if the reaction is spontaneous or not. Um, what we see is that the not off the cell. So we know that he not off the cell, is greater than zero. And when it's greater than zero, it's a spontaneous reaction. Okay? And so this was part A. And now we go toe part B. So once again, we take two halfs off the reaction. So first we take the first half. Yeah. Okay. 80 cl goes toe form e g plus C l Negative. Okay. So since we don't need any oxygen or hydrogen atoms to be balanced, we just balance the charge by adding one electron on this side. So this is a the reduction reaction, okay. And the second half off, the reaction is, and all goes to nitrate iron. Now, here we will have to balance the oxygen atom, and hence the hydrogen atoms as well. So to balance the oxygen atoms, we will have to add to water molecules here, since we have three oxygen atoms on the right hand side. So we have to add to water molecules in order to balance the number off oxygen atoms. So three are present on the left hand side. Now and now we have four hydrogen atoms. Soto balance that will have four edge positive. And now, since you see the charge on the left hand side, the zero where is on the right hand side is three. Positively balance it by adding three electrons. And now, since the reaction occurs via the loss off electrons, it's the oxidation reaction. And now, since we have toe, add the two equations to cancel out the number off electrons, we multiply the reduction reaction by three. So the overall reaction or the total balance reaction comes out. Toby three A. D. C. L plus, um, toe bottom molecules plus and know which forms three kg and the electron scape canceled. I didn't show that, but here is sick. Um three cl negative plus and three negative plus footage. Positive. Okay. And now if you look at the appendix d, the reduction occurs at get told, that means he not see is equal 2.2 volt and the oxidation occurs at an order for energy is 0.96 and e not sell comes out. Toby. He not get hood minus e not a node which is equal to minus 0.7 food. Now, since he not iss less than zero, the reaction is not spontaneous. Yeah, I hope that helps

For a reaction in which the reduction people two plus a quick solution. Bye nickel solid take place. So in this reaction, nickel well oxidizes and toe nickel to Pless been released. Two electrons so e oxidation for the nickel is 0.26 world, while the reduction off the P B two plus toe gain two electrons little form BB saw the E production will be equal toe zero minus 0.13 world combining the two equations. So Michael react people two plus forming nickel to place and p v zero e not off. The cell is urging the oxidation and reduction, which is 0.1 three world. Is he not his positive your value. So the reaction is spontaneous for another sell in which oxidation off Ori um plus I'm and creates solution by the amen to plus on an agreed solution take place. Or in this reaction, I meant to plus, well again, electron and will reduce toe mm zero. So the e reduction for the M N is Pinckney's is minus one point one age world, while orry um plus sign oxidize toe a U three plus releasing two electrons. So the the reduction. The the oxidation for the Ori, um, is minus 1.40 world. Combining the two equations. We can write them there mn two plus plus U plus crossing the electrons on both side form, a U three plus and magnesium and Xerox relations state in not off the sill, heading the A ball to values the oxidation and reduction we will get minus toe blind 59 or as the SL is negative value. So the reaction is non spontaneous on a third type of cell in which production up are you, dean by man, knees take place. So in this reaction, mag knees oxidizes and mn two plus releasing two electrons so the oxidation is equal toe plus 1.18 world, while Irene again the two electrons forming two iodide I'm so the e reduction for the Irene is plus 0.54 world to combine Board the equations so I'm Agnese react with Irene crossing the electrons on either side form. Amen to bless and two iodide. I'm in art off the cell is that some of the you oxidation and reduction which is equal toe one. Why 72 worlds is the value of the e not off the city's positive or so the reaction is spontaneous reaction or the four type of cell in which oxidation of Ireland oxidation up island two plus bye, bro Mean has taken place. So in this reaction, the to fair assign oxidizes into the fella kind, losing two electrons. So the e oxidation for this reaction is minus zero point 77 world while Ramin can the electrons reduces toe toe bro Mydans, The the reduction for the Brahmins is plus 1.9 world adding their two equations. We can write that too. Paris I react with the Ramin molecule crossing the electron on either side, Mom to fairy kind and toe bromide. On in. Not off the self is the summer P oxidation and reduction which is equal toe zero point 32 world is the value of in Arsal is positive. So the reaction is spontaneous. If you like to want Delta Gina, we can use the equation minus and if in art. But there is no need for the determination of delta in art if somebody find out the Delta GNR. So if the Delta g not has positive your value. The reaction will be non spontaneous for those reactions where energy is negative. Your value so Delta Jeannot will be positive and file the reactions. Always data. Gina has negative value. Reaction will be spontaneous. In this case, in art will help. Positive. You're William.


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